ko- Stem of demonstrative pronoun meaning “this.” Oldest form *kìo-, becoming *ko- in centum languages. Derivatives include he1, et cetera, and behind.

I. Variant form *ki-.

1 a. HE1, from Old English hë, he; b. HIM, from Old English him, him (dative of ); c. HIS, from Old English his, his (genitive of ); d. HER, from Old English hire, her (dative and genitive of heo, she); e. IT, from Old English hit, it (neuter of ); f. HERE, from Old English hër, here; g. HENCE, from Old English heonane, heonon, from here. a–g all from Germanic *hi-.

2. Suffixed form *ki-tro-. HITHER, from Old English hider, hither, from Germanic *hi-thra-.

3. Suffixed form *ki-s. CIS-, from Latin cis, on this side of.

II. Variant form *ke-.

1. Preposed in *ke-etero- (*e-tero-, a second time, again; see i- ). ET cetera, from Latin cëterus (neuter plural cëtera), the other part, that which remains.

2. Postposed in Latin -ce (see nu- ).


1. BEHIND, HIND1, from Old English behindan, in the rear, behind (bi, at; see ambhi ).

2. HINTERLAND, from Old High German hintar, behind.

3. HINDER1, HINDRANCE, from Old English hindrian, to check, hinder, from Germanic derivative verb *hindrön, to keep back. 1–3 all from Germanic root *hind-, behind, attributed by some to this root (but more likely of obscure origin).

(Pokorny 1. ko- 609.)

kö- To sharpen, whet. Oldest form *kìe@3-, colored to *kìo@3-, contracted to *kìö- (becoming *kö- in centum languages).

1. Suffixed extended form *ko@i-no-. HONE1, from Old English hän, stone, from Germanic *hainö.

2. Possibly Greek könos, cone, conical object (< “a sharp-pointed object”): CONE, CONI; CONIFER, CONODONT.

(Pokorny kìë(i)- 541.)

kob- To suit, fit, succeed. HAP, HAPPEN, HAPP; HAPLESS, MISHAP, from Old Norse happ, chance, good luck, from Germanic *hap-.

(Pokorny kob- 610.)

kom Beside, near, by, with. Derivatives include enough, handiwork, and country.

1. ENOUGH, GEMOT, HANDIWORK, WITANAGEMOT, YCLEPT, YEAN, from Old English ge-, with, also participial, collective, and intensive prefix, from Germanic *ga-, together, with (collective and intensive prefix and marker of the past participle).

2. CUM1; COONCAN, from Latin cum, co-, with.

3. CO-, COM-, from Archaic Latin com, with (collective and intensive prefix).

4. British Celtic *kom-, collective prefix, in compound *kombrogos (see merg- ).

5. Suffixed form *kom-trä-. CON1, CONTRA-, CONTRARY, COUNTER1, COUNTER-, COUNTR; ENCOUNTER, from Latin conträ, against, opposite.

6. Suffixed form *kom-yo-. COENO; CENOBITE, EPICENE, KOINE, from Greek koinos, common, shared.

7. Reduced form *ko- in compounds (see gher-1 , mei-1 , smei- ).

(Pokorny kom 612.)

konk- To hang. Oldest form *kìonk-, becoming *konk- in centum languages.

1 a. HANG, from Old English hön, to hang; b. HANKER, from Dutch (dialectal) hankeren, to long for; c. HINGE, from Middle English henge, hinge, hinge, possibly related (ultimately from the base of Old English hangian, to hang). a–c all from Germanic *hanhan (transitive), hangën (intransitive), hang.

2. Suffixed form *konk-it-ä-. CUNCTATION, from Latin cünctärï, to delay.

(Pokorny kìenk- 566, kìonk- 614.)

koro- War; also war-band, host, army.

1. HERIOT, from Old English here, army.

2. ARRIère-ban, from Old French herban, a summoning to military service (ban, proclamation, summons; see bhä-2 ). 3a. HARBOR, from Old English herebeorg, lodging; b. HARBINGER, from Old French herberge, lodging. Both a and b from Germanic compound *harja-bergaz, “army hill,” hill-fort, later shelter, lodging, army quarters (*bergaz, hill; see bhergh-2 ).

4. HERALD, from Anglo-Norman herald, from Germanic compound *harja-waldaz, “army commander” (*wald-, rule, power; see wal- ).

5. HARNESS, from Old French harneis, harness, from Germanic compound *harja-nestam, “army provisions” (*nestam, food for a journey; see nes-1 ).

6. HARRY, HURRY, from Old English hergian, to ravage, plunder, raid, from Germanic denominative *harjön.

7. HARANGUE, from Old Italian aringo, arringa, public square, from Germanic compound *harihring, assembly, “host-ring” (*hringaz, ring; see sker-2 ). 1–7 all from Germanic *harjaz, army.

(Pokorny koro-s 615.)

kost- Bone. Probably related to ost- . COAST, COSTA, COSTARD, COSTREL, CUESTA, CUTLE; ACCOST, INTERCOSTAL, STERNOCOSTAL, from Latin costa, rib, side.

(Pokorny kost- 616.)

kous- To hear. Oldest form *@2kous-.

1 a. HEAR, from Old English hïeran, to hear; b. HEARKEN, from Old English he(o)rcnian, to harken. Both a and b from Germanic *hauzjan;

2. Suffixed form *@kous-yo-. ACOUSTIC, from Greek akouein, to hear.

(Pokorny 1. keu- 587.)

krei- To sieve, discriminate, distinguish. Derivatives include garble, crime, certain, excrement, crisis, and hypocrisy.

1. Basic form with variant instrumental suffixes. a. Suffixed form *krei-tro-. RIDDLE1, from Old English hridder, hriddel, sieve, from Germanic *hridra-; b. suffixed form *krei-dhro-. CRIBRIFORM, GARBLE, from Latin crïbrum, sieve.

2. Suffixed form *krei-men-. a. CRIME, CRIMINA; RECRIMINATE, from Latin crïmen, judgment, crime; b. DISCRIMINATE, from Latin discrïmen, distinction (dis-, apart).

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-no-. CERTAI; ASCERTAIN, CONCERN, CONCERT, DECREE, DISCERN, DISCONCERT, EXCREMENT, EXCRETE, INCERTITUDE, RECREMENT, SECERN, SECRET, SECRETARY, from Latin cernere (past participle crëtus), to sift, separate, decide.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *kri-n-yo-. CRISIS, CRITIC, CRITERIO; APOCRINE, DIACRITIC, ECCRINE, ENDOCRINE, EPICRITIC, EXOCRINE, HEMATOCRIT, HYPOCRISY, from Greek krïnein, to separate, decide, judge, and krïnesthai, to explain.

(Pokorny 4. sker-, Section II. 945.)

kreu@- Raw flesh. Oldest form *kreu@2-.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *krow@-o-. RAW, from Old English hrëaw, raw, from Germanic *hrawaz.

2. Suffixed form *krew@-s-. CREATINE, CREODONT, CREOSOTE, PANCREAS, from Greek kreas, flesh.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *krü-do- (< *kru@-do-). a. CRUD; ECRU, RECRUDESCE, from Latin crüdus, bloody, raw; b. CRUEL, from Latin crüdëlis, cruel.

(Pokorny 1. A. kreu- 621.)

kreus- To begin to freeze, form a crust.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-to-. a. CROUTON, CRUST, CRUSTACEAN, CRUSTACEOUS, CRUSTOS; ENCRUST, KRISTALLNACHT, from Latin crüsta, crust (with obscure lengthening); b. CRYSTAL, CRYSTALLINE, CRYSTALLO-, from Greek krustallos, ice, crystal.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-es-. CRYO-, from Greek kruos, icy cold, frost.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *krus-mo-. CRYMOTHERAPY, from Greek krümos, icy cold, frost.

(Pokorny 1. B. kreu- 621.)

ksun Preposition and preverb meaning “with.”

1. SYN-, from Greek sun, xun, together, with.

2. Basic form *su(n)-. a. SOVIET, from Old Russian compound sùve^tù, assembly; b. SPUTNIK, from Russian so-, s-, with, together. a and b from Old Russian sù(n)-, with, together. (In Pokorny 2. sem- 902.)

kwe And (enclitic). SESQUI-, UBIQUITY, from Latin -que, and.

(Pokorny 1. ku_e 635.)

kwei-1 To pay, atone, compensate. Suffixed o-grade form *kwoi-nä-. PAIN, PENAL, PENALTY, PINE2, PUNIS; IMPUNITY, PENOLOGY, PUNITORY, REPINE, SUBPOENA, from Greek poinë, fine, penalty.

(Pokorny 1. ku_ei-(t-) 636.)

kwei-2 To pile up, build, make. O-grade form *kwoi-. a. CHEETAH, from Sanskrit käyah., body; b. suffixed form *kwoi-wo-, making, in denominative verb *kwoiw-eyo-. POEM, POESY, POET, POETIC, -poiesis, -poieti; EPOPEE, MYTHOPOEIC, ONOMATOPOEIA, PHARMACOPOEIA, from Greek poiein, to make, create.

(Pokorny 2. ku_ei- 637.)

kwei@- Also kwye@-. To rest, be quiet. Oldest forms *kwei@1-, *kwye@1

Derivatives include while, coy, and requiem.

I. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwï-lo- (< *kwi@-lo-).

1 a. WHILE, from Old English hwïl, while; b. WHILOM, from Old English hwïlum, sometimes. Both a and b from Germanic *hwïlö.

2. Possibly Latin tranquillus, tranquil (träns, across, beyond; see ter@-2 ): TRANQUIL.

II. Variant form *kwyë- (< *kwye@-).

1. Suffixed form *kwyë-t-. REQUIEM, from Latin quiës, rest, quiet.

2. Suffixed form *kwyë-ske-. COY, QUIET, QUI; ACQUIESCE, ACQUIT, QUITCLAIM, QUITE, QUITRENT, REQUIESCAT, from Latin quiëscere (past participle quiëtus), to rest.

(Pokorny ku_ei@- 638.)

kweit- Also kweid-. White; to shine. Oldest form *kìweit-, becoming *kweit- in centum languages.

1. Suffixed variant form *kweid-o-. a. WHIT; WHITSUNDAY, from Old English hwït, white; b. WITLOOF, from Middle Dutch wit, white; c. WHITING2, from Middle Dutch wijting, whiting; d. i EDELWEISS, from Old High German hwïz, wïz, white; ii BISMUTH, from obsolete German Bismut, Wismut, perhaps obscurely related to Old High German wïz, white. a–d all from Germanic *hwïtaz.

2. Suffixed o-grade variant form *kwoid-yo-. WHEAT, from Old English hwaëte, wheat (from the fine white flour it yields), from Germanic *hwaitjaz.

(Pokorny 3. kìu_ei- 628.)

kwel-1 Also kwel@-. To revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell. Derivatives include colony, cult, wheel, cyclone, pulley, and bucolic.

I. Basic form *kwel-. COLONY, CULT, CULTIVATE, CULTURE, KULTU; INCULT, INQUILINE, SILVICOLOUS, from Latin colere, to till, cultivate, inhabit (< *kwel-o-).

II. Suffixed form *kwel-es-. TELIC, TELIUM, TELO-, TELO; ENTELECHY, TALISMAN, TELEOLOGY, TELEOST, TELEUTOSPORE, from Greek telos, “completion of a cycle,” consummation, perfection, end, result.

III. Suffixed reduplicated form *kw(e)-kwl-o-, circle.

1. WHEEL, from Old English hwëol, hweogol, wheel, from Germanic *hwewlaz.


3. CHAKRA, CHUKKER, from Sanskrit cakram, circle, wheel.

4. Metathesized form *kwe-lkw-o-. CHARKHA, from Old Persian *carka-.

IV. O-grade form *kwol-.

1. Suffixed form *kwol-so-, “that on which the head turns,” neck. a. i HAWSE, from Old Norse häls, neck, ship's bow; ii RINGHALS, from Middle Dutch hals, neck; iii HABERGEON, HAUBERK, from Old French hauberc, hauberk, from Germanic compound *h(w)als-berg-, “neck-protector,” gorget (*bergan, to protect; see bhergh-1 ). (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *h(w)alsaz; b. COL, COLLAR, COLLET, CULLE; ACCOLADE, DECOLLATE1, Décolleté, MACHICOLATE, MACHICOLATION, TORTICOLLIS, from Latin collum, neck.

2. Suffixed form *kwol-ä-. -colou; PRATINCOLE, from Latin -cola and incola, inhabitant (in-, in; see en ).

3. Suffixed form *kwol-o-. a. ANCILLARY, from Latin anculus, “he who bustles about,” servant (an-, short for ambi-, around, about; see ambhi ); b. POLE1, PULLEY, from Greek polos, axis of a sphere; c. BUCOLIC, from Greek boukolos, cowherd, from -kolos, herdsman.

4. Suffixed form *kwol-es- (probably a blend of o-grade *kwol-o- and expected e-grade *kwel-es-). CALASH, KOLACKY, from Slavic kolo, koles-, wheel.

5. Suffixed o-grade form *kwol-eno- in Old Iranian compound *vahä-carana- (see wes-3 ).

6. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *kwl,@-i-. PALIMPSEST, PALINDROME, PALINGENESIS, PALINODE, from Greek palin, again (< “revolving”).

(Pokorny 1. ku_el- 639.)

kwel-2 Far (in space and time).

1. Lengthened-grade form *kwël-. TELE-, from Greek tële, far off.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwl,-ai. PALEO-, from Greek palai, long ago.

(Pokorny 2. ku_el- 640.)

kwen- Holy. Oldest form *kìwen-, becoming *kwen- in centum languages. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwn,-s-lo-. HOUSEL, from Old English hüsl, hüsel, sacrifice, Eucharist, from Germanic *hunslam.

(Pokorny *kìu_en- 630.)

kwent(h)- To suffer.

1. Suffixed form *kwenth-es-. NEPENTHE, from Greek penthos, grief.

2. Zero-grade form *kwn,th-. PATHETIC, PATHO-, PATHOS, -path; APATHY, PATHOGNOMONIC, SYMPATHY, from Greek pathos, suffering, passion, emotion, feelings.

(Pokorny ku_enth- 641.)

kwer- To make.

1. PRAKRIT, PUGGREE, SANSKRIT, from Sanskrit karoti, he makes.

2. Suffixed form *kwer-ör with dissimilated form *kwel-ör. PELORIA, from Greek pelör, monster (perhaps “that which does harm”).

3. Suffixed form *kwer-@s-. TERA-, TERATO-, from Greek teras, monster.

4. Suffixed form *kwer-mn,. KARMA, from Sanskrit karma, act, deed.

(Pokorny 1. ku_er- 641.)

kwes- To pant, wheeze. Oldest form *kìwes-, becoming *kwes- in centum languages.

1. WHEEZE, from Old Norse hvæsa, to hiss, from Germanic *hwësjan.

2. QUARREL1, QUERULOUS, from Latin querï, to complain.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *kus-ti-. CYST, CYSTO-, from Greek kustis, bladder, bag (< “bellows”).

(Pokorny kìu_es- 631.)

kwët- To shake. Contracted from *kwe@1t-. Zero-grade form *kw@t-, becoming *kwat-. a. CASCARA, CASK, SCUTCH, SQUASH2; CONCUSS, DISCUSS, PERCUSS, RESCUE, SOUKOUS, SUCCUSSION, from Latin quatere (past participle quassus, in composition -cussus), to shake, strike; b. PASTA, PASTE1, PASTEL, PASTICHE, PASTIS, PASTRY, Pâté, PATISSERIE, PATTY, from Greek passein, to sprinkle.

(Pokorny ku_ët- 632.)

kwetwer- Four. Derivatives include four, squad, quarantine, and farthing.

I. O-grade form *kwetwor-.

1 a. FOUR, from Old English fëower, four; b. FORTY, from Old English fëowertig, forty; c. FOURTEE; FORTNIGHT, from Old English fëowertëne, fourteen (-tëne, ten; see dekm, ). a–c all from Germanic *fe(d)wor-, probably from *kwetwor-.

2. QUATRAI; CATER-cornered, QUATTROCENTO, from Latin quattuor, four.

3. CZARDAS, from Old Iranian cathwärö, four.

II. Multiplicatives *kweturs, *kwetrus, and combining forms *kwetur-, *kwetru-.



3. QUADRI-, from Latin quadri-, four.

4. QUADRANT, from Latin quadräns, a fourth part.

5. QUARANTINE, from Latin quadrägintä, forty (-gintä, ten times; see dekm, ).

6. QUADRICENTENARY, from Latin quadri(n)gentï, four hundred.

7. Variant form *kwet(w)r,-. a. TETRA-, from Greek tetra-, four; b. TESSER; DIATESSARON, from Greek tessares, tettares, four; c. TETRAD, from Greek tetras, group of four; d. zero-grade form *kwt(w)r,-. TRAPEZIUM, from Greek tra-, four.

III. Ordinal adjective *kwetur-to-.

1 a. FOURTH, from Old English fëortha, fëowertha, fourth; b. FIRKIN, from Middle Dutch veerde, fourth; c. FARTHING, from Old English fëorthing, fëorthung, fourth part of a penny; d. FILLER2, from Old High German fiordo, fourth. a–d all from Germanic *fe(d)worthön-.

2. QUADRILLE2, QUADROON, QUART, QUARTAN, QUARTER, QUARTO, from Latin quärtus, fourth, quarter.

(Pokorny ku_etu_er- 642.)

kwo- Also kwi-. Stem of relative and interrogative pronouns. Derivatives include who, whether, either, quorum, quip, and quality.

1 a. WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, from Old English hwä, hwæs, hwaëm, who, whose, whom, from Germanic personal pronouns *hwas, *hwasa, *hwam; b. WHAT, from Old English hwæt, what, from Germanic pronoun *hwat; c. WHY, from Old English hwÿ, why, from Germanic adverb *hwï; d. WHICH, from Old English hwilc, hwelc, which, from Germanic relative pronoun *hwa-lïk- (*lïk-, body, form; see lïk-); e. HOW, from Old English hü, how, from Germanic adverb *hwö; f. i WHEN, from Old English hwenne, hwanne, when; ii WHENCE, from Old English hwanon, whence. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic adverb *hwan-; g. WHITHER, from Old English hwider, whither, from Germanic adverb *hwithrë; h. WHERE, from Old English hwaër, where, from Germanic adverb *hwar-. a–h all from Germanic *hwa-, *hwi-. 2a. WHETHE; NEITHER, from Old English hwæther, hwether, which of two, whether; b. EITHER, from Old English aëghwæther, aëther, either, from Germanic phrase *aiwo gihwatharaz, “ever each of two” (*aiwo, *aiwi, ever, and *gi- from *ga-, collective prefix; see aiw- and kom ). Both a and b from Germanic *hwatharaz.

3. QUA, QUIBBLE, QUORUM, from Latin quï, who.

4. HIDALGO, QUIDDITY, QUIDNUNC, QUI; KICKSHAW, from Latin quid, what, something.

5. QUASI, from Latin quasi, as if (< quam + sï, if; see swo- ), from quam, as, than, how.

6. QUODLIBET, from Latin quod, what.

7. Suffixed form *kwo-ti. a. QUOTE, QUOTIDIAN, QUOTIEN; ALIQUOT, from Latin quot, how many; b. further suffixed form *kwo-ty-o-. POSOLOGY, from Greek posos, how much.

8. QUONDAM, from Latin quom, when.

9. COONCAN, from Latin quem, whom.

10. QUANTITY, from Latin quantus, how great.

11. QUALIT; KICKSHAW, from Latin quälis, of what kind.

12. CUE2, from Latin quandö, when (from *kwäm + -dö, to, til; see de- ).

13. NEUTER, from Latin uter, either of two, ultimately from *kwo-tero- (becoming -cuter in such compounds as necuter, neither, from which uter was abstracted out by false segmentation).

14. UBIQUITY, from Latin ubi, where, ultimately from locative case *kwo-bhi (becoming -cubi in such compounds as alicubi, somewhere, from which ubi was abstracted out by false segmentation, perhaps under the influence of ibi, there).

15. CHEESE3, from Old Persian *cis^-ciy, something (< *kwid-kwid).

(Pokorny ku_o- 644.)

kwon- Dog. Oldest form *kìwon-, becoming *kwon- in centum languages.

1. CYNI; CYNOSURE, PROCYON, QUINSY, from Greek kuön, dog.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwn,-to-. a. HOUND, from Old English hund, dog; b. DACHSHUND, from Old High German hunt, dog; c. KEESHOND, from Middle Dutch hond, dog. a–c all from Germanic *hundaz.

3. Nominative form *kwö. CORGI, from Welsh ci, dog.

4. Variant *kan-i-. CANAILLE, CANARY, CANICULAR, CANINE, CHENILLE, KENNEL1, from Latin canis, dog.

(Pokorny kìu_on- 632.)

kwrep- Body, form, appearance. Probably a verbal root meaning “to appear.”

1. Suffixed form *kwrep-es-. MIDRIFF, from Old English hrif, belly from Germanic *hrefiz-.


(Pokorny 1. krep- 620.)

lüs- Louse. LOUSE, from Old English lüs, louse, from Germanic *lüs-.

(Pokorny lûs- 692.)

mä-1 Good; with derivatives meaning “occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early.” Oldest form *me@2-, colored to *ma@2-, contracted to *mä-.

1. Suffixed form *mä-tu-. a. Further suffixed form *mä-tu-ro-. MATUR; IMMATURE, PREMATURE, from Latin mätürus, seasonable, ripe, mature; b. further suffixed form *mä-tu-to-. MATINEE, MATINS, MATUTINAL, from Latin Mätüta, name of the goddess of dawn.

2. Suffixed form *mä-ni-. a. MAñana, from Latin mäne, (in) the morning; b. MANES, from Latin mänis, mänus, good.

(Pokorny 2. mä- 693.)

mä-2 Mother. A linguistic near-universal found in many of the world's languages, often in reduplicated form.

1. MAMMA2, MAMMAL, MAMMILLA, from Latin mamma, breast.

2. Probably from this root is Greek Maia, “good mother” (respectful form of address to old women), also nurse: MAIA, MAIEUTI; MAIASAUR.

3. MAMA, more recently formed in the same way.

(Pokorny 3. 694.)

mag- Also mak-. To knead, fashion, fit. Oldest forms *magì-, *makì-, becoming *mag-, *mak- in centum languages. Derivatives include make, mason, mingle, magma, and mass.

1 a. i MAKE, from Old English macian, to make; ii MASON, from Old French masson, mason; iii MAQUILLAGE, from Middle Dutch maken, to make. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic verb *makön, to fashion, fit; b. MATCH1, from Old English gemæcca, mate, spouse, from Germanic compound noun *ga-mak-(j)ön-, “one who is fitted with (another)” (*ga-, with, together; see kom ). Both a and b from Germanic *mak-. 2a. MINGLE, from Old English mengan, to mix; b. AMONG, MONGREL, from Old English gemang, mixture, crowd (ge-, together; see kom ). Both a and b from Germanic nasalized form *mangjan, to knead together.

3. Suffixed form *mak-yo-. MAGMA, from Greek magma, unguent, from massein (aorist stem mag-), to knead.

4. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mäg-ya-. MAS; AMASS, MAZAEDIUM, from Greek mäza, maza, a (kneaded) lump, barley cake.

5. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mäk-ero-. MACERATE, from Latin mäceräre, to tenderize, to soften (food) by steeping.

(Pokorny magì- 696, 2. mäk- 698, men(@)k- 730.)

magh- To be able, have power. Derivatives include dismay, might1, machine, and magic.

1 a. MAY1, from Old English magan, to be able; b. DISMAY, from Old French esmaier, to frighten. Both a and b from Germanic *magan, to be able.

2. MIGHT1, from Old English miht, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mah-ti-, power.

3. MAIN, from Old English mægen, power, from Germanic suffixed form *mag-inam, power.

4. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *mägh-anä-, “that which enables.” MACHINE, MECHANIC, MECHANISM, MECHANO-, from Greek (Attic) mëkhanë, (Doric) mäkhanä, device.

5. Possibly suffixed form *magh-u-. MAGIC, MAGUS, from Old Persian magus^, member of a priestly caste (< “mighty one”).

(Pokorny magh- 695.)

maghu- Young person of either sex. Suffixed form *magho-ti-. a. MAID, MAIDEN, from Old English mægden, virgin; b. MATJES herring, from Dutch maagd, maid. Both a and b from Germanic *magadi-, with diminutive *magadin-.

(Pokorny maghos 696.)

mäk- Long, thin. Oldest form *me@2kì-, colored to *ma@2kì-, contracted to *mäkì (becoming *mäk- in centum languages).

1. Zero-grade form *m@k- becoming *mak-. a. i MEAGER, from Latin macer, thin; ii MACRO-, MACRO; AMPHIMACER, from Greek makros, long, large. Both (i) and (ii) from suffixed form *mak-ro-; b. EMACIATE, from Latin maciäre, to make thin, from suffixed form *mak-ye-.

2. Suffixed full-grade form *mäk-es-. MECOPTERAN, PARAMECIUM, from Greek mëkos, length.

(Pokorny mäkì- 699.)

man-1 Also mon-. Man.

1. Extended forms *manu-, *manw-. a. MA; LEMAN, NORMAN1, from Old English man(n) (plural menn), man; b. FUGLEMAN, LANDSMAN2, from Old High German man, man; c. MANIKIN, MANNEQUIN, from Middle Dutch man, man; d. YEOMAN, from Old Frisian man, man; e. NORMAN1, OMBUDSMAN, from Old Norse madhr, mannr, man; f. ALEMANNI, possibly from Germanic *Ala-manniz, tribal name (< “all men”: *ala-, all; see al-3 ). a–f all from Germanic *manna- (plural *manniz); g. MANU, from Sanskrit manuh., man, from Indo-Iranian *manu-.

2. MENSCH, from Old High German mennisco, human, from Germanic adjective *manniska-, human, from *manna- (see 1 ).

3. MUZHIK, from Russian muzh, man, male, from Slavic suffixed form *mon-gyo-.

(Pokorny manu-s 700.)

man-2 Hand. Derivatives include manacle, maneuver, and manure.


2. Suffixed form *man-ko-, maimed in the hand. MANQUé, from Latin mancus, maimed, defective.

3. EMANCIPATE, from Latin compound manceps, “he who takes by the hand,” purchaser (-ceps, agential suffix, “taker”; see kap- ).

4. MANDAMUS, MANDATE, MAUNDY Thursda; COMMAND, COMMANDO, COMMEND, COUNTERMAND, DEMAND, RECOMMEND, REMAND, from Latin compound mandäre, “to put into someone's hand,” entrust, order (-dere, to put; see dhë- ).

(Pokorny m@-r 740.)

marko- Horse. MARE1, from Old English mere, miere, mare, from Germanic feminine *marhjön-.

(Pokorny marko- 700.)

mäter- Mother. Based ultimately on the baby-talk form mä-2 , with the kinship term suffix *-ter-. Derivatives include mother1, matrix, and matter.

1 a. MOTHER1, from Old English mödor, mother; b. MOTHER2, from Middle Dutch moeder, mother. Both a and b from Germanic *mödar-.


3. METRO; METROPOLIS, from Greek mëtër, mother.

4. MATERIAL, MATTER, from Latin mäteriës, mäteria, tree trunk (< “matrix,” the tree's source of growth), hence hard timber used in carpentry, hence (by a calque on Greek hülë, wood, matter) substance, stuff, matter.

5. DEMETER, from Greek compound Dëmëtër, name of the goddess of produce, especially cereal crops (dë-, possibly meaning “earth”).

(Pokorny mätér- 700.)

me-1 Oblique form of the personal pronoun of the first person singular. For the nominative see eg .

1. ME, MYSELF, from Old English (dative and accusative), from Germanic *mê-.

2. Possessive adjective *mei-no-. a. MINE2, MY, from Old English mïn, my; b. MYNHEER, from Middle Dutch mijn, my. Both a and b from Germanic *mïn-.

3. Possessive adjective *me-yo-. MADAME, MONSIEUR, from Latin meus, mine.

4. Genitive form *me-wo. MAVOURNEEN, from Old Irish mo, my.

(Pokorny 1. me- 702.)

me-2 In the middle of.

1. Suffixed form *me-dhi. MIDWIFE, from Old English mid, among, with, from Germanic *mid-.

2. Suffixed form *me-ta. META-, from Greek meta, between, with, beside, after.

(Pokorny 2. me- 702.) See also medhyo- .

më-1 Expressing certain qualities of mind. Contracted from *me@1-.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *mö-to-. a. MOOD1, from Old English möd, mind, disposition; b. GEMütlich, GEMütlichkeit, from Old High German muot, mind, spirit. Both a and b from Germanic *möthaz.

2. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *mö-s-. MORAL, MORALE, MORES, MOROSE, from Latin mös, wont, humor, manner, custom.

(Pokorny 5. më- 704.)

më-2 To measure. Contracted from *me@1-. Derivatives include piecemeal, immense, meter1, geometry, moon, and semester.

I. Basic form më-.

1. Suffixed form *më-lo-. MEAL2; PIECEMEAL, from Old English maël, “measure, mark, appointed time, time for eating, meal,” from Germanic *mëlaz.

2. Suffixed form *më-ti-. a. MEASURE, MENSURA; COMMENSURATE, DIMENSION, IMMENSE, from Latin mëtïrï, to measure; b. METIS, from Greek mëtis, wisdom, skill.

3. Possibly Greek metron, measure, rule, length, proportion, poetic meter (but referred by some to med- ): METER1, METER2, METER3, -meter, METRICAL, -metr; DIAMETER, GEOMETRY, ISOMETRIC, METROLOGY, METRONOME, SYMMETRY.

4. Reduplicated zero-grade form *mi-m@-. MAHOUT, MAUND, from Sanskrit mimïte, he measures.

II. Extended and suffixed forms *mën-, *mën-en-, *mën-öt-, *mën-s-, moon, month (an ancient and universal unit of time measured by the moon).

1. MOO; MONDAY, from Old English möna, moon, from Germanic *mënön-.

2. MONTH, from Old English mönath, month, from Germanic *mënöth-.



(Pokorny 3. më- 703, mënöt 731.)

më-3 Big. Contracted from *me@1-.

1. Suffixed (comparative) form *më-is-. MORE, from Old English mära, greater, and märe (adverb), more, from Germanic *maizön-.

2. Suffixed (superlative) form *më-isto-. MOST, from Old English maëst, most, from Germanic *maista-.

3. Suffixed form *më-ro-, *më-ri-. Märchen, from Old High German märi, news, narration.

4. Suffixed o-grade form *mö-ro-. CLAYMORE, from Gaelic mör, big, great.

(Pokorny 4. më- 704.)

më-4 To cut down grass or grain with a sickle or scythe. Contracted from *me@1-.

1. MOW2, from Old English mäwan, to mow, from Germanic *më-.

2. Suffixed form *më-ti-. AFTERMATH, from Old English maëth, a mowing, a mown crop, from Germanic *mëdiz.

3. Suffixed form *më-twä-, a mown field. MEAD2, MEADOW, from Old English maëd, meadow, from Germanic *mëdwö.

(Pokorny 2. më- 703.)

med- To take appropriate measures. Derivatives include medicine, modest, modern, commodity, and empty.

1 a. METE1, from Old English metan, to measure (out), from Germanic *metan; b. MEET2, from Old English gemaëte, “commensurate,” fit (ge-, with; see kom ), from Germanic derivative *maëtö, measure. 2a. MEDICAL, MEDICATE, MEDICINE, MEDIC; METHEGLIN, REMEDY, from Latin medërï, to look after, heal, cure; b. MEDITATE, from Latin meditärï, to think about, consider, reflect.

3. Suffixed form *med-es-. a. MODES; IMMODEST, from Latin modestus, “keeping to the appropriate measure,” moderate; b. MODERAT; IMMODERATE, from Latin moderärï, “to keep within measure,” to moderate, control. Both a and b from Latin *modes-, replacing *medes- by influence of modus (see 5 below).

4. MEDUSA, from Greek medein, to rule (feminine participle medousa < *med-ont-ya).

5. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-o-. MODAL, MODE, MODEL, MODERN, MODICUM, MODIFY, MODULATE, MODULE, MODULUS, MOLD1, MOOD2, MOULAG; ACCOMODATE, COMMODE, COMMODIOUS, COMMODITY, from Latin modus, measure, size, limit, manner, harmony, melody.

6. Suffixed o-grade form *mod-yo-. MODIOLUS, MUTCHKIN, from Latin modius, a measure of grain.

7. Possibly lengthened o-grade form *möd-. a. MOTE2, MUST1, from Old English mötan, to have occasion, to be permitted or obliged; b. EMPTY, from Old English aëmetta, rest, leisure, from Germanic compound *ë-möt-ja- (prefix *ë-, meaning uncertain, from Indo-European *ë, *ö, to). Both a and b from Germanic *möt-, ability, leisure.

(Pokorny 1. med- 705.)

medhu- Honey; also mead (hydromel).

1. MEAD1, from Old English meodu, mead, from Germanic *medu.

2. AMETHYST, METHYLENE, from Greek methu, wine.

(Pokorny médhu- 707.)

medhyo- Middle. Derivatives include middle, medieval, and meridian.

1 a. MID1, MIDS; AMID, from Old English midd(e), middle; b. MIDDLE, from Old English middel, middle, from West Germanic diminutive form *middila-; c. MIDGARD, from Old Norse Midhgardhr, Midgard, from Germanic compound *midja-gardaz, “middle zone,” name of the earth conceived as an intermediate zone lying between heaven and hell (*gardaz, enclosure, yard; see gher-1 ). a–c all from Germanic *midja-.


3. MESO-, from Greek mesos, middle.

(Pokorny medhi- 706.) See also me-2 .

meg- Great. Oldest form *megì-, becoming *meg- in centum languages. Derivatives include much, magnate, mayor, maestro, and maharajah.

1 a. MICKLE, MUCH, from Old English micel, mycel, great; b. MICKLE, from Old Norse mikill. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *mik-ila-.


3. Suffixed (comparative) form *mag-yos-. a. MAJOR, MAJOR-domo, MAJORITY, MAJUSCULE, MAYOR, from Latin mäior, greater; b. MAESTOSO, MAJESTY, from Latin mäiestäs, greatness, authority; c. MAESTRO, MAGISTERIAL, MAGISTRAL, MAGISTRATE, MASTER, MISTER, MISTRAL, MISTRESS, from Latin magister, master, high official (< “he who is greater”).

4. Suffixed (superlative) form *mag-samo-. MAXIM, MAXIMUM, from Latin maximus, greatest.

5. Suffixed (feminine) form *mag-ya-, “she who is great.” MAY2, MAY, from Latin Maia, name of a goddess.

6. Suffixed form *meg-@-(l-). MEGA-, MEGALO; ACROMEGALY, OMEGA, from Greek megas (stem megal-), great.

7. Suffixed (superlative) form meg-(@)-isto-. ALMAGEST, HERMES Trismegistus, from Greek megistos, greatest.

8. Variant form *megh- (< *meg-@-). MAHABHARATA, MAHARAJAH, MAHARANI, MAHARISHI, MAHATMA, MAHAYANA, MAHOUT, from Sanskrit mahä-, mahat-, great.

(Pokorny megì(h)- 708.)

mei-1 To change, go, move; with derivatives referring to the exchange of goods and services within a society as regulated by custom or law. Derivatives include mad, molt, mutate, mistake, communism, amoeba, and migrate.

1. MEATU; CONGé, IRREMEABLE, PERMEATE, from Latin meäre, to go, pass.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-to-. a. MAD, from Old English *gemaëdan, to make insane or foolish, from Germanic *ga-maid-jan, denominative from *ga-maid-az, “changed (for the worse),” abnormal (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom ); b. MEW1, MOLT, MUTAT; COMMUTE, PERMUTE, REMUDA, TRANSMUTE, from Latin mütäre, to change; c. MUTUAL, from Latin mütuus, “done in exchange,” borrowed, reciprocal, mutual.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-tä-. AZIMUTH, ZENITH, from Latin sëmita, sidetrack, side path (< “thing going off to the side”; së-, apart; see s(w)e- ).

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-tro-. a. MITRA, from Sanskrit mitrah., friend, friendship; b. MITHRAS, from Avestan and Old Persian mithra-, contract. Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *mitra-, friend(ship), contract, god of the contract.

5. Suffixed extended zero-grade form *mit-to-. a. MIS-1, from Old English mis-, mis-, and Old French mes- (from Frankish *miss-); b. AMISS, MISTAKE, from Old Norse mis(s), mis(s)-, miss, mis-; c. MISS1, from Old English missan, to miss, from Germanic *missjan, to go wrong. a–c all from Germanic *missa-, “in a changed manner,” abnormally, wrongly.

6. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n- in compound adjective *ko-moin-i-, “held in common” (*ko-, together; see kom ). a. MEAN2, DEMEAN2, from Old English gemaëne, common, public, general, from Germanic *gamainiz; b. COMMON, COMMUNE1, COMMUNE2, COMMUNICATE, COMMUNIS; EXCOMMUNICATE, INCOMMUNICADO, from Latin commünis, common, public, general.

7. Suffixed o-grade form *moi-n-es-. a. MUNICIPAL, MUNIFICENT, REMUNERATE, from Latin münus, “service performed for the community,” duty, work, “public spectacle paid for by a magistrate,” gift; b. IMMUNE, from Latin immünis, exempt from public service (in-, negative prefix; see ne ).

8. Extended form *(@)meigw-. a. AMOEBA, from Greek ameibein, to change; b. MIGRAT; EMIGRATE, from Latin migräre, to change one's place of living.

(Pokorny 2. mei-, 3. mei- 710, mei-gu_- 713, 2. mei-t(h)- 715.)

mei-2 Small. Derivatives include menu, mince, minestrone, and minister.

1. MEIOSI; MIOCENE, from Greek meiön, less, lesser, from extended variant *meiu-.

2. Zero-grade compounded suffixed form *ne-mi-s (see ne ).

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *mi-nu-. a. MENU, MINCE, MINUEND, MINUET, MINUTE2, MINUTIA, COMMINUTE, DIMINISH, from Latin minuere, to reduce, diminish; b. MINOR, MINU; MINUSCULE, from Latin minor (influenced by the comparative suffix -or), less, lesser, smaller; c. further suffixed (superlative) form *minu-mo-. MINIM, MINIMUM, from Latin minimus, least; d. MINESTRONE, MINISTER, MINISTRY, MYSTERY2, from Latin minister, an inferior, servant (formed after magister, master; see meg- ); e. MENSHEVIK, from Russian men'she, less.

(Pokorny 5. mei- 711.)

meigh- To urinate. Oldest form *meigìh-, becoming *meigh- in centum languages.

1 a. MIST, from Old English mist, mist (brume)
b. MIZZLE1, from Middle English misellen, to drizzle (bruiner) from a source perhaps akin to Dutch dialectal mieselen, to drizzle;
c. MISSEL thrush, MISTLETOE, from Old English mistel, mistletoe, from Germanic diminutive form *mihst-ila-, mistletoe (which is propagated through the droppings of the missel thrush).
a–c all from Germanic suffixed form *mih-stu-, urine, hence mist, fine rain.

2. Suffixed form *migh-tu-. MICTURATE, from Latin micturïre, to want to urinate (desiderative of meiere, to urinate).

(Pokorny meigìh- 713.)

meik- Also meig-. To mix. Oldest forms *meikì-, *meigì-, becoming *meik-, *meig- in centum languages.

1. Zero-grade variant form *mig-. AMPHIMIXIS, APOMIXIS, PANMIXIA, from Greek mignunai, to mix, and noun mixis (< *mig-ti-), a mingling.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *mik-sk-. MEDDLE, MEDLEY, Mélange, MELEE, MESCLUN, MESTIZO, MISCELLANEOUS, MISCIBLE, MIX, MIXTURE, MUSTAN; ADMIX, COMMIX, IMMIX, MISCEGENATION, PELL-mell, PROMISCUOUS, from Latin miscëre (past participle mixtus), to mix.

3. Possibly Germanic *maisk- (phonological details unclear). MASH, from Old English *mäsc, *mäcs, mäx-, mashed malt.

(Pokorny mei-kì- 714.)

mei-no- Opinion, intention.

1. MOAN, from Old English *män, opinion, complaint, from Germanic *main-.

2. MEAN1; BEMOAN, from Old English maënan, to signify, tell, complain of, moan, from Germanic *mainjan.

(Pokorny mei-no- 714.)

mel-1 Soft; with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds.

I. Extended form *meld-.

1. MELT, from Old English meltan, to melt, from Germanic *meltan.

2. Possibly Germanic *miltja-. MILT, from Old English milte, spleen, and Middle Dutch milte, milt.

3. Possibly Germanic *malta-. MALT, from Old English mealt, malt.

4. Suffixed variant form *mled-sno-. BLENNY, from Greek blennos, slime, also a name for the blenny.

5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ml,d-wi-. MOIL, MOLLIFY, MOLLUSK, MOUILLé EMOLLIENT, from Latin mollis, soft.

6. Possibly nasalized variant form *mlad-. BLAND, BLANDISH, from Latin blandus, smooth, caressing, flattering, soft-spoken.

II. Variant form *smeld-. a. SMELT1, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German smelten, to smelt; b. SCHMALTZ, from Old High German smalz, animal fat; c. SMALT, from Italian smalto, enamel, glaze; d. ENAMEL, from Old French esmail, enamel. a–d all from Germanic *smelt-; e. SMELT2, from Old English smelt, smylt, a marine fish, smelt, perhaps from Germanic *smelt-.

III. Extended form *meldh-.

1. MILD, from Old English milde, mild, from Germanic *mildja-.

2. Possibly Greek maltha, a mixture of wax and pitch: MALTHA.

IV. Suffixed form *mel-sko-. MULCH, from Old English mel(i)sc, mylsc, mild, mellow, from Germanic *mil-sk-.

V. Extended form *ml,@k-. BONANZA, CHONDROMALACIA, MALACOLOGY, OSTEOMALACIA, from Greek malakos, soft.

VI. Possibly Celtic *molto-, sheep. MUTTON, from Old French moton, sheep.

VII. Suffixed zero-grade form *(@)ml-u-. AMBLYGONITE, AMBLYOPIA, from Greek amblus, blunt, dull, dim.

(Pokorny 1. mel- 716.)

mel-2 Strong, great.

1. Suffixed (comparative) form *mel-yos-. AMELIORATE, MELIORATE, MELIORISM, from Latin melior, better.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *ml,-to-. MOLTO, MULTI-, MULTITUDE, from Latin multus, much, many.

(Pokorny 4. mel- 720.)

mel-3 False, bad, wrong.


2. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *ml,-s-. BLAME, BLASPHEME, from Greek blasphëmos, blasphemous, perhaps from *ml,s-bhä-mo-, “speaking evil” (*bhä-, to speak; see bhä-2 ).

3. Suffixed form *mel-yo-. MARKHOR, from Avestan mairiia-, treacherous.

(Pokorny 2. mel- 719, mëlo- 724.)

mel@- Also mel-. To crush, grind; with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances (such as flour) and to instruments for grinding or crushing (such as millstones). Oldest form *mel@2-.

1. O-grade form *mol-. MAELSTROM, from Middle Dutch malen, to whirl, from Germanic *mal-.

2. Full-grade form *mel-. MEAL1, from Old English melu, flour, meal, from Germanic suffixed form *mel-wa-.

3. Zero-grade form *ml,-. MOLD3, MOLDER, from Old English molde, soil, from Germanic suffixed form *mul-dö.

4. Full-grade form *mel-. a. MEUNIère, MILL1, MOLA2, MOLAR2, MOLE4, MOULI; EMOLUMENT, IMMOLATE, ORMOLU, from Latin molere, to grind (grain), and its derivative mola, a millstone, mill, coarse meal customarily sprinkled on sacrificial animals; b. possible suffixed form *mel-iyo-. MEALIE, MILIARY, MILIUM, MILLE; GROMWELL, from Latin milium, millet.

5. Suffixed variant form *mal-ni-. MALLEABLE, MALLEOLUS, MALLET, MALLEUS, MAU; PALL-mall, from Latin malleus, hammer, mallet.

6. Zero-grade form *ml,-. AMYLUM, MYLONITE, from Greek mulë, mulos, millstone, mill.

7. Possibly extended form *mlï-. BLINI, BLINTZ, from Old Russian blinù, pancake.

(Pokorny 1. mel- 716.)

melg- To rub off; also to milk. Oldest form *melgì-, becoming *melg- in centum languages.


1. Zero-grade form *ml,g-. EMULSION, from Latin mulgëre, to milk.

2. Full-grade form *melg-. a. MILK, from Old English meolc, milc; b. MILCH, from Old English -milce, milch, from Germanic suffixed form *meluk-ja-, giving milk; c. MILCHIG, from Old High German miluh, milk. a–c all from Germanic *melkan, to milk, contaminated with an unrelated noun for milk, cognate with the Greek and Latin forms given in II below, to form the blend *meluk-.

II. Included here to mark the unexplained fact that no common Indo-European noun for milk can be reconstructed is another root *g(a)lag-, *g(a)lakt-, milk, found only in: a. GALACTIC, GALACTO-, GALAX; AGALACTIA, POLYGALA, from Greek gala (stem galakt-), milk; b. LACTATE, LACTEAL, LACTESCENT, LACTO-, LATTE, LETTUCE, from Latin lac, milk; c. the blended Germanic form cited in I. 2. above.

(Pokorny mêlgì- 722, glag- 400.)

melit- Honey.

1. HYDROMEL, MARMALADE, MELILOT, OENOMEL, from Greek meli, honey. 2a. MELLIFEROUS, MELLIFLUOUS, MOLASSES, from Latin mel (stem mell-), honey, from *meld-, syncopated from *melid-; b. suffixed zero-grade form *ml,d-to-, “honied.” MOUSSE, from Latin mulsus, honey-sweet.

3. MILDEW, from Old English mildëaw, honeydew, nectar, from Germanic compound *melith-dauwaz, honeydew (a substance secreted by aphids on leaves; it was formerly imagined to be distilled from the air like dew; *dauwaz, dew; see dheu-1 ), from *melith-.

(Pokorny meli-t 723.)

men-1 To think; with derivatives referring to various qualities and states of mind and thought. Derivatives include mind, mention, automatic, mania, money, monster, mosaic, music, and amnesia.

I. Zero-grade form *mn,-.

1. Suffixed form *mn,-ti-. a. MIND, from Old English gemynd, memory, mind, from Germanic *ga-mundi- (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom ); b. MENTAL1; AMENT2, DEMENT, from Latin mëns (stem ment-), mind; c. MENTION, from Latin mentiö, remembrance, mention.

2. Suffixed form *mn,-to-. AUTOMATIC, from Greek -matos, “willing.”

3. Suffixed form *mn,-yo-. a. MAENAD, from Greek mainesthai, to be mad; b. AHRIMAN, from Avestan mainiius^, spirit. 4a. MANIA, MANIAC, MANIC, from Greek maniä, madness; b. BALLETOMANE, from Greek -manës, ardent admirer.

II. Full-grade form *men-.

1. Suffixed form *men-ti-. a. MINNESINGER, from Old High German minna, love; b. MINIKIN, from Middle Dutch minne, love. Both a and b from Germanic *minthjö. 2a. MEMENTO, from Latin reduplicated form meminisse, to remember; b. COMMENT, from Latin comminïscï, to contrive by thought (com-, intensive prefix; see kom ); c. REMINISCENT, from Latin reminïscï, to recall, recollect (re-, again, back; see re-); d. possibly Latin Minerva, name of the goddess of wisdom: MINERVA. 3a. MENTOR, from Greek Mentör, Mentor, man's name (probably meaning “adviser”); b. -mancy, MANTIC, MANTIS, from Greek mantis, seer (vocalism obscure).

4. MANDARIN, MANTRA, from Sanskrit mantrah., counsel, prayer, hymn.

5. Suffixed form men-es-. EUMENIDES, from Greek menos, spirit.

III. O-grade form *mon-.

1. Suffixed (causative) form *mon-eyo-. MONISH, MONITION, MONITOR, MONSTER, MONUMENT, MUSTE; ADMONISH, DEMONSTRATE, PREMONITION, SUMMON, from Latin monëre, to remind, warn, advise.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-twa. MOSAIC, MUSE, MUSEUM, MUSIC, from Greek Mousa, a Muse.

IV. Extended form *mnä-, contracted from *mna@-.

1. AMNESIA, AMNESTY, ANAMNESIS, from Greek reduplicated form mimnëskein, to remember.

2. MNEMONIC, from Greek mnëmön, mindful.

3. MNEMOSYNE, from Greek mnëmë, memory.

V. Indo-European verb phrase *mens dhë-, “to set mind” (*dhë-, to put; see dhë- ), underlying compound noun *mn,s-dhë-. AHURA Mazda, MAZDAISM, ORMAZD, from Avestan mazdä-, wise.

(Pokorny 3. men- 726, mendh- 730.)

men-2 To project. Derivatives include mouth, menace, and mountain.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *mn,-to- in a western Indo-European word for a projecting body part, variously “chin, jaw, mouth.” a. MOUTH, from Old English müth, mouth, from Germanic *munthaz; b. MENTAL2, from Latin mentum, chin.

2. MENACE, MINACIOU; AMENABLE, DEMEAN1, PROMENADE, from Latin minae, projecting points, threats.

3. EMINENT, IMMINENT, PROMINENT, PROMONTORY, from Latin -minëre, to project, jut, threaten.

4. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-ti-. MONS, MONTAGNARD, MONTANE, MONTE, MONTICULE, MOUNT1, MOUNT2, MOUNTAI; AMOUNT, ULTRAMONTANE, from Latin möns (stem mont-), mountain.

(Pokorny 1. men- 726, 2. menth- 732.)

men-3 To remain. Variant suffixed (stative) form *man-ë-. MANOR, MANSE, MANSION, Ménag; IMMANENT, PERMANENT, REMAIN, from Latin manëre, to remain.

(Pokorny 5. men- 729.)

men-4 Small, isolated.

1. MANOMETER, from Greek manos, rare, sparse.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *mon-wo-. MONAD, MONASTERY, MONK, MONO; PSEUDOMONAD, from Greek monos, alone, single, sole.

3. Possibly also suffixed form *men-i-, a small fish. MINNOW, from Middle English meneu, a small fish, from a source akin to Old English myne, mynwe, minnow.

(Pokorny 4. men- 728, meni- 731.)

mendh- To learn. Zero-grade form *mn,dh-. MATHEMATICAL, MATHEMATIC; CHRESTOMATHY, POLYMATH, from Greek manthanein (aorist stem math-), to learn.

(Pokorny mendh- 730.)

menegh- Copious. MANY, from Old English manig, mænig, many, from Germanic *managa-.

(Pokorny men(e)gh- 730.)

mer- To rub away, harm. Derivatives include nightmare, morsel, morbid, mortal, mortgage, and ambrosia.


1. NIGHTMARE, from Old English mare, mære, goblin, incubus, from Germanic *marön-, goblin.

2. MARASMU; AMARANTH, from Greek marainein, to waste away, wither.

3. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *mr,-to-, “ground down.” MORTAR, from Latin mortärium, mortar.

4. Possibly extended root *merd-. MORDACIOUS, MORDANT, MORDENT, MORSE; PREMORSE, REMORSE, from Latin mordëre, to bite.

5. Possibly suffixed form *mor-bho-. MORBID, from Latin morbus, disease (but this is more likely of unknown origin).

II. Possibly the same root is *mer-, “to die,” with derivatives referring to death and to human beings as subject to death.

1. Zero-grade form *mr,-. a. Suffixed form *mr,-tro-. MURDER, from Old English morthor, murder, from Germanic suffixed form *mur-thra-; b. suffixed form *mr,-ti-. MORT1, MORTA; AMORTIZE, MORTIFY, POSTMORTEM, from Latin mors (stem mort-), death; c. suffixed form *mr,-yo-. MORIBUND, MORTGAGE, MORTMAIN, MORTUARY, MURRAIN, from Latin morï, to die, with irregular past participle mortuus (< *mr,-two-), replacing older *mr,-to- (for which see d ); d. prefixed and suffixed form *n,-mr,-to-, “undying, immortal.” (*n,-, negative prefix; see ne ). i IMMORTAL, from Latin immortälis; ii AMBROSIA, from Greek ambrotos, immortal, divine (a- + -mbrotos, brotos, mortal); iii AMRITA, from Sanskrit amr.tam, immortality (a- + mr.ta-, dead).

2. Suffixed o-grade form *mor-t-yo-. MANTICORE, from Greek mantikhöras (corrupted from marti(o)khöras), manticore, probably from Iranian compound *martiya-khvära-, “man-eater” (*khvära-, eating; see swel- ), from Old Persian martiya-, a mortal man.

(Pokorny 4. mer-, 5. mer- 735.)

merg- Boundary, border. Oldest form *mergì-, becoming *merg- in centum languages. Derivatives include marquee, demarcation, and margin.

1 a. MARK1, from Old English mearc, boundary, landmark, sign, trace; b. MARGRAVE, from Middle Dutch marc, border; c. MARCH2, MARQUEE, MARQUIS, MARQUISE, from Old French marc, marche, border country; d. MARCHESE, MARCHIONESS, from Medieval Latin marca, boundary, border; e. DEMARCATION, from Old Italian marcare, to mark out; f. MARK2, from Old English marc, a mark of weight or money; g. MARKKA, from Swedish mark, a mark of money; h. MARKA, from Middle High German marke, mark of money. a–h all from Germanic *mark-, boundary, border territory; also to mark out a boundary by walking around it (ceremonially “beating the bounds”); also a landmark, boundary marker, and a mark in general (and in particular a mark on a metal currency bar, hence a unit of currency); these various meanings are widely represented in Germanic descendants and in Romance borrowings.

2. LETTERS of marque, MARQUETR; REMARK, from Old Norse merki, a mark, from Germanic *markja-, mark, border.

3. MARC, MARCH1, from Frankish *markön, to mark out, from Germanic denominative verb *markön.

4. MARGI; EMARGINATE, from Latin margö, border, edge.

5. Celtic variant form *mrog-, territory, land. CYMRY, from Welsh Cymro, Wales, from British Celtic *kom-brogos, fellow countryman (*kom-, collective prefix; see kom ), from *brogos, district.

(Pokorny meregì- 738.)


(Pokorny 2. meu_- 743.)

mizdho- Reward. MEED, from Old English mëd, reward, compensation, meed, from West Germanic *mëdö-, from Germanic *mizdö.

(Pokorny mizdhó- 746.)

mori- Body of water; lake (?), sea (?).

1 a. MERE2; MERMAID, from Old English mere, sea, lake, pond; b. MARRAM, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse marr, sea; c. MEERSCHAUM, from Old High German mari, sea; d. MEERKAT, from Middle Dutch meer, sea. a–d all from Germanic *mari-. 2a. MARSH, from Old English mersc, merisc, marsh; b. MORASS, from Old French maresc, mareis, marsh. Both a and b from Germanic *mariska-, water-logged land.


(Pokorny mori 748.)

mregh-u- Short. Oldest form *mregìh-u-, becoming *mregh-u- in centum languages.

I. Suffixed form *mregh-wi-. BRIEF, BRUMA; ABBREVIATE, ABRIDGE, from Latin brevis, short.

II. Zero-grade form *mr,ghu-.

1 a. MERRY, from Old English myrge, mirige, pleasant; b. MIRTH, from Old English myrgth, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *murgithö, pleasantness. Both a and b from Germanic *murgja-, short, also pleasant, joyful.

2. BRACHY; AMPHIBRACH, TRIBRACH, from Greek brakhus, short.

3. BRACE3, BRACERO, BRACHIUM, BRASSARD, BRASSIERE, PRETZE; EMBRACE, from Greek comparative brakhiön, shorter, hence also “upper arm” (as opposed to the longer forearm).

(Pokorny mregìhu- 750.)

müs- A mouse; also a muscle (from the resemblance of a flexing muscle to the movements of a mouse).

1. MOUSE, from Old English müs (plural mÿs), mouse, from Germanic *müs- (plural *müsiz).

2. MURINE, MUSCLE, MUSSEL, MUSTELINE, from Latin müs, mouse.


4. Perhaps suffixed reduced form *mus-ko-. MUSCADET, MUSCAT, MUSCATEL, MUSK, MUST5; NUTMEG, from Sanskrit mus.kah., testicle, scrotum (? < “little mouse”).

(Pokorny müs 752.)

nas- Nose.

1. NOSE, NUZZL; NOSTRIL, from Old English nosu, nose, from Germanic zero-grade form *nusö.

2. NESS, from Old English næss, headland, from Germanic *nasja-.

3. Lengthened-grade form *näs-. a. NARIS, from Latin näris, nostril; b. expressive form *näss-. NASAL, NASO; NASTURTIUM, PINCE-nez, from Latin näsus, nose.

4. NARK2, from Romany näk, nose, from expressive Indo-Aryan form *nakka-.

(Pokorny nas- 755, neu-ks- 768.)

näu- Boat. Oldest form *ne@2u-, colored to *na@2u-, contracted to *nau- (before consonants) and *näw- (before vowels).

1. NACELLE, NAVAL, NAVE1, NAVICULAR, NAVIGATE, NAVY, from Latin nävis, ship.


(Pokorny 1. näus- 755.)

n,dher- Under.

1 a. UNDER, UNDER-, from Old English under, under; b. U-boat, from Old High German untar, under. Both a and b from Germanic *under-.

2. INFERIOR, from Latin ïnferus, lower.

3. INFERNAL, INFERNO, from Latin ïnfernus, lower.

4. INFRA-, from Latin ïnfrä, below.

(Pokorny n,dhos 771.)

ne Not. Derivatives include naughty, never, nothing, annul, nice, annihilate, negligee, deny, and renegade.

1 a. NAUGHT, NAUGHTY, NEITHER, NEVER, NILL, NO1, NO2, NONE, NOR1, NOT, NOTHING, from Old English ne, not, and nä, no; b. NAY, from Old Norse ne, not; c. NIX2, from Old High German ne, ni, not. a–c all from Germanic *ne-, *na-.

2. ANNUL, NEFARIOUS, NESCIENCE, NEUTER, NICE, NULL, NULLIFY, NULLIPARA, from Latin ne-, not, and nüllus, none (ne- + üllus, any; see oi-no- ).

3. NIMIETY, from Latin nimis, too much, excessively, very (< *ne-mi-s, “not little”; *mi-, little; see mei-2 ).

4. NIHILISM, NIHILITY, NI; ANNIHILATE, from Latin nihil, nïl, nothing, contracted from nihilum, nothing (< *ne-hïlum, “not a whit, nothing at all”; hïlum, a thing, trifle; origin unknown).

5. NON; NONPLUS, NONSUIT, from Latin nön, not (< *ne-oinom, not one thing”; *oino-, one; see oi-no- ).

6. NISI, from Latin nisi, unless (nï, not, from *nei + sï, if; see swo- ). 7a. NEGLECT, NEGLIGEE, NEGOTIATE, from Latin prefix neg-, not; b. NEGAT; ABNEGATE, DENY, RENEGADE, RENEGE, from Latin negäre, to deny. Both a and b from Italic *nek, not.

8. NEPENTHE, from Greek në-, not.

9. Zero-grade combining form *n,-. a. i UN-1, from Old English un-, not; ii ZUGUNRUHE, from Old High German un-, not. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *un-; b. IN-1, from Latin in-, not; c. A-1, AN-, from Greek a-, an-, not; d. AHIMSA, from Sanskrit a-, an-, not; e. compound *n,-mr,-to- (see mer- ).

(Pokorny 1. 756.)

nebh- Cloud.

1. Suffixed form *nebh-(e)lo-. a. NIFLHEIM, from Old Norse nifl-, “mist” or “dark,” probably from Germanic *nibila-; b. NIBELUNG, from Old High German Nibulunc, Nibilung, from Germanic suffixed patronymic form *nibul-unga-, beside Old High German nebul, mist, fog, from Germanic *nebla-.

2. Suffixed form *nebh-elä-. a. NEBULA, NEBULOUS, from Latin nebula, cloud; b. NEPHELIN; NEPHELOMETER, from Greek nephelë, cloud.

3. Suffixed form *nebh-es-. NEPHOLOGY, from Greek nephos, cloud.

4. Nasalized form *ne-m-bh-. NIMBUS, from Latin nimbus, rain, cloud, aura.

(Pokorny 2. (enebh-) 315.)

ned- To bind, tie.

1. O-grade form *nod-. a. NET1, from Old English net(t), a net, from Germanic *nati-; b. NETTLE, from Old English netel(e), netle, nettle, from Germanic *nat-ilo, a nettle (nettles or plants of closely related genera such as hemp were used as a source of fiber); c. OUCH2, from Anglo-Norman nouch, brooch, from Germanic *nat-sk-.

2. Lengthened o-grade form *nödo-. NODE, NODULE, NODUS, NOIL, NOOS; Dénouement, from Latin nödus, a knot.

3. With re-formation of the root. NEXU; ADNEXA, ANNEX, CONNECT, from Latin nectere (past participle nexus), to tie, bind, connect.

(Pokorny 1. ned- 758.)

nek-1 Death. Oldest form *nekì-, becoming *nek- in centum languages. Derivatives include nuisance, innocent, and nectarine.

1. INTERNECINE, PERNICIOUS, from Latin nex (stem nec-), death.

2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *nok-eyo-. NOCENT, NOCUOUS, NUISANC; INNOCENT, INNOCUOUS, from Latin nocëre, to injure, harm.

3. Suffixed o-grade form *nok-s-. NOXIOU; OBNOXIOUS, from Latin noxa, injury, hurt, damage entailing liability.

4. Suffixed full-grade form *nek-ro-. NECRO-, NECROSI; NECROMANCY, from Greek nekros, corpse.

5. NECTAR, NECTARINE, from Greek nektar, the drink of the gods, “overcoming death” (*tar-, overcoming; see ter@-2 ).

(Pokorny nekì- 762.)

nek-2 To reach, attain. Oldest form *nekì-, becoming *nek- in centum languages.

I. O-grade form *nok-. ENOUGH, from Old English genög, enough, from Germanic *ganöga-, sufficient, from *ga-nah, “suffices” (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom ).

II. Variant form *enk-.

1. ONCOGENESIS, ONCOLOGY, from Greek reduplicated enenkein, to carry (suppletive aorist of pherein, to carry; see bher-), with derived noun onkos, a burden, mass, hence a tumor (from suffixed o-grade *onk-o-; see 2 below).

2. Suffixed o-grade form *onk-o-. BAISA, PAISA, PICE, from Sanskrit as'ah., part, portion.

3. Compound root *bhrenk- (see bher1).

(Pokorny enekì- 316.)

nekw-t- Night. Probably from a verbal root *negw-, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t-.

1 a. NIGH; FORTNIGHT, from Old English niht, neaht, night; b. KRISTALLNACHT, from Old High German naht, night. Both a and b from Germanic *naht-.

2. NOCTI-, NOCTURN, NOCTURNAL, EQUINOX, from Latin nox (stem noct-), night.

3. NOCTUID, NOCTULE, from Latin noctua, night owl.

4. NYCTALOPIA, NYCTITROPISM, from Greek nux (stem nukt-), night.

5. Suffixed plain verbal root *negw-ro-. NEGRO, NIELLO, NIGELLA, NIGRESCENCE, NIGROSIN; DENIGRATE, STREPTONIGRIN, from Latin niger, black.

(Pokorny neku_-(t-) 762.)

nem- To assign, allot; also to take. Derivatives include numb, nemesis, and nomad.

1 a. NIM1, NUM; BENUMB, from Old English niman, to take, seize; b. NIMBLE, from Old English naëmel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing; c. NIM2, from Old High German nëman, to take. a–c all from Germanic *nem-.

2. NEMESI; ECONOMY, from Greek nemein, to allot.

3. O-grade form *nom-. a. LUMMA, NOME, -nom; ANOMIE, ANTINOMIAN, ANTINOMY, ASTRONOMER, ASTRONOMY, AUTONOMOUS, DEUTERONOMY, METRONOME, NOMOGRAPH, NOMOLOGY, NOMOTHETIC, NUMISMATIC, from Greek nomos, portion, usage, custom, law, division, district; b. NOMA, from Greek nomë, pasturage, grazing, hence a spreading, a spreading ulcer; c. NOMAD, from Greek nomas, wandering in search of pasture; d. NUMMULAR, NUMMULITE, from Greek nomimos, legal.

4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *nom-eso-. NUMBER, NUMERA; ENUMERATE, INNUMERABLE, SUPERNUMERARY, from Latin numerus, number, division.

(Pokorny 1. nem- 763.)

nepöt- Grandson, nephew. Feminine *neptï-. NEPHEW, NEPOTISM, NIECE, from Latin nepös, grandson, nephew, and neptis, granddaughter, niece.

(Pokorny nepöt- 764.)

ner-1 Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *nr,-t(r)o-. a. NORDIC, NORTH, from Old English north, north; b. NORTHERN, from Old English northerne, northern; c. NORSE, from Middle Dutch nort, north; d. NORMAN1, NORWEGIAN, from Old Norse nordhr, north.

(Pokorny 2. ner- 765.) Compare deks- .

ner-2 Man; basic sense “vigorous, vital, strong.” Oldest root form *@2ner-. ANDRO-, -androus, -andr; PHILANDER, from Greek anër (stem andr-, from zero-grade form *@nr-), man.

(Pokorny 1. ner-(t-) 765.)

nes-1 To return safely home.

1. HARNESS, from Old French harneis, harness, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old English, Old High German (in composition), and Old Norse nest, food for a journey, from Germanic *nes-tam.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *nos-to-. NOSTALGIA, from Greek nostos, a return home.

(Pokorny nes- 766.)

nes-2 Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we- .

1. Zero-grade form *n,s-. US, from Old English üs, us (accusative), from Germanic *uns.

2. Suffixed (possessive) zero-grade form *n,s-ero-. OUR, OURS, from Old English üser, üre, our, from Germanic *unsara-.

3. O-grade form *nos-, with suffixed (possessive) form *nos-t(e)ro-. NOSTRATIC, NOSTRU; PATERNOSTER, from Latin nös, we, and noster, our.

(Pokorny 3. ne- 758.)

neu- To shout. Suffixed (participial) o-grade form *now-ent-(yo-), “shouting.” NUNCI; ANNOUNCE, DENOUNCE, ENUNCIATE, INTERNUNCIO, PRONOUNCE, RENOUNCE, from Latin nüntius, “announcing,” hence a messenger, also a message, and nüntium, message.

(Pokorny 1. neu- 767.)

newn, Nine.

1. NINE, NINETEEN, NINETY, NINTH, from Old English nigon, nine, with derivatives nigontig, ninety, and nigontëne, nineteen (-tëne, ten; see dekm, ), from Germanic *nigun, variant of *niwun.

2. NOVEMBER, NOVEN; NONAGENARIAN, from Latin novem, nine (< *noven, with m for n by analogy with the m of septem, seven, and decem, ten).

3. Ordinal form *neweno-. NONA-, NONES, NOO; NONAGON, NONANOIC acid, from Latin nönus, ninth.

4. Prothetic or prefixed forms *@1newn,, *@1nwn,. ENNEAD, from Greek ennea, nine (< *ennewa, *enwa-).

(Pokorny e-neu_en 318.)

newo- New. Related to nu- . Derivatives include neon and nova.

1. Suffixed form *new-yo-. a. NEW, from Old English nëowe, nïwe, new; b. NYNORSK, SPAN-new, from Old Norse nÿr, new. Both a and b from Germanic *neuja-.

2. Basic form *newo-. NEO-, NEON, NEOTERI; MISONEISM, from Greek newos, neos, new.

3. Suffixed form *new-aro-. ANEROID, from Greek nëron, water, from nëros, fresh (used of fish and of water), contracted from nearos, young, fresh.


5. Suffixed form *new-er-ko-. NOVERCAL, from Latin noverca, stepmother (< “she who is new”).

(Pokorny neu_os 769.)

nobh- Also ombh-. Navel; later also “central knob,” boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *@3nobh-, variant *@3ombh- (< *@3onbh-).

1 a. NAVE2, from Old English nafu, nafa, hub of a wheel; b. AUGER, from Old English nafogär, auger, from Germanic compound *nabö-gaizaz, tool for piercing wheel hubs (*gaizaz, spear, piercing tool). Both a and b from Germanic *nabö.

2. Variant form *ombh-. UMBO, from Latin umbö, boss of a shield.

3. Suffixed form *nobh-alo-. NAVEL, from Old English nafela, navel, from Germanic *nabalö.

4. Suffixed variant form *ombh-alo-. a. UMBILICU; NOMBRIL, from Latin umbilïcus, navel; b. OMPHALOS, from Greek omphalos, navel.

(Pokorny 1. (enebh-) 314.)

nogh- Also ongh-. Nail, claw. Oldest forms *@3nogh-, *@3ongh-.

1. Suffixed (diminutive) form *nogh-elo-. NAIL, from Old English nægl, nail, from Germanic *nagla-.

2. Form *@nogh-. ONY; PARONYCHIA, PERIONYCHIUM, SARDONYX, from Greek onux (stem onukh-), nail.

3. Variant form *ongh-. UNGUICULATE, UNGUIS, UNGULATE, from Latin unguis, nail, claw, hoof, with diminutive ungula, hoof, claw, talon (< *ongh-elä-).

(Pokorny onogh- 780.)

nogw- Naked.

1. Suffixed forms *nogw-eto-, *nogw-oto-. NAKED, from Old English nacod, naked, from Germanic *nakweda-, *nakwada-.

2. Suffixed form *nogw-edo-. NUDE, NUDI; DENUDE, from Latin nüdus, naked.

3. Suffixed form *nogw-mo-. GYMNASIUM, GYMNAS; GYMNOSOPHIST, GYMNOSPERM, from Greek gumnos, naked (with metathesis due to taboo deformation).

4. Suffixed form *nogw-no-. NAAN, from Old Persian *nagna-, bare, naked.

(Pokorny nogu_- 769.)

nô-men- Name. Oldest form *@1no(&schwa3)-mn,, zero-grade form *@1n,(@3)-men-.

1. NAME, from Old English nama, name, from Germanic *namön-.



4. MONIKER, from Old Irish ainm, name.

(Pokorny en(o)mn,- 321.)

nu- Now. Related to newo- .

1. NOW, from Old English nü, now.

2. QUIDNUNC, from Latin nunc, now (< *nun-ce; -ce, a particle meaning “this,” “here”; see ko- ).

(Pokorny nu- 770.)

od- To hate. ANNOY, ENNUI, NOISOME, ODIUM, from Latin ödï, I hate, and odium, hatred.

(Pokorny 2. od- 773.)

oi-no- One, unique. Derivatives include once, atone, union, universe, and any.

I. Basic form *oi-no-.

1 a. A1, AN1, ONCE, ON; ALONE, ANON, ATONE, LONE, LONELY, NONE, from Old English än, one; b. ELEVEN, from Old English endleofan, eleven, from Germanic compound *ain-lif-, “one left (beyond ten),” eleven (*lif-, left over; see leikw- ); c. EINKORN, TURNVEREIN, from Old High German ein, one. a–c all from Germanic *ainaz.


3. INDRICOTHERE, from Old Russian inù, one.

4. Latin nön, not (< *ne-oinom, “not one thing”; see ne ).

II. Suffixed form *oino-ko-. a. ANY, from Old English aënig, one, anyone, from Germanic *ainigaz; b. UNIQUE, from Latin ünicus, sole, single; c. INCH1, OUNCE1, UNCIA; QUINCUNX, from Latin üncia, one twelfth of a unit.

III. Suffixed form *oino-lo- in Latin üllus (see ne ).

(Pokorny 3. D. e- 281.)

oktö(u) Eight. Oldest form *okìtö(u), becoming *oktö(u) in centum languages.

1 a. EIGHT, EIGHTEEN, EIGHTY, from Old English eahta, eight, with derivatives eahtatig, eighty, and eahtatëne, eighteen (-tëne, ten; see dekm, ); b. ATTO-, from Old Norse ättjän, eighteen (tjän, ten; see dekm, ). Both a and b from Germanic *ahtö.


3. OCTAD, OCTO; OCTOPUS, from Greek oktö, eight.

4. AT2, from Sanskrit as.t.ä, eight.

(Pokorny okìtö(u) 775.)

öku- Swift. Oldest form *ökìu-, becoming *öku- in centum languages.

1. OXYTOCIC, from Greek ökus, swift (rapide, prompt).

2. Possibly altered zero-grade form *aku- in compound *aku-petro-, “swift-flying” (*pet-ro-, flying; see pet- ). ACCIPITER, from Latin accipiter, hawk.

(Pokorny ökìú-s 775.) See also ekwo- .

okw- To see. Oldest form *@3ekw-, colored to *@3okw-, zero-grade *@3kw-. Derivatives include eye, daisy, window, inoculate, and autopsy.

1 a. EY; DAISY, from Old English ëage, eye; b. WALLEYED, WINDOW, from Old Norse auga, eye; c. OGLE, from Low German oog, oge, eye. a–c all from Germanic *augön- (with taboo deformation).

2. Suffixed form *okw-olo-. a. EYELET, OCELLUS, OCULAR, OCULIST, OCULUS, ULLAG; ANTLER, INOCULATE, MONOCLE, OCULOMOTOR, PINOCHLE, from Latin oculus, eye; b. INVEIGLE, from French aveugle, blind, from Gallo-Latin compound *ab-oculus, blind, calqued on Gaulish exs-ops, blind.


4. Suffixed form *okw-ti-. OPSIN, -opsis, -ops; AUTOPSY, DROPSY, IODOPSIN, RHODOPSIN, SYNOPSIS, from Greek opsis, sight, appearance.

5. Suffixed form *okw-to-. OPTI; DIOPTER, OPTOELECTRONICS, OPTOMETRY, PANOPTIC, from Greek optos, seen, visible.

6. Suffixed form *okw-ä-. METOPE, from Greek opë, opening.

7. Suffixed form *okw-mn,. OMMATIDIUM, OMMATOPHORE, from Greek omma (< *opma), eye.

8. Suffixed form *okw-tro-. CATOPTRIC, from Greek katoptron, “back-looker,” mirror (kata-, down, back; see kat- ).

9. OPHTHALMO; EXOPHTHALMOS, from Greek ophthalmos, eye (with taboo deformation).

10. Zero-grade form *@kw-, in compounds (see ant- , äter- , ghwer- ).

(Pokorny oku_- 775.)

op- To work, produce in abundance. Oldest form *@3ep-, colored to *@3op-. Derivatives include opera1, maneuver, manure, opulent, and cornucopia.

1. Suffixed form *op-es-. OPERA1, OPERATE, OPEROSE, OPU; COOPERATE, INURE, MANEUVER, MANURE, OFFICINAL, STOVER, from Latin opus (stem oper-), work, with its denominative verb operärï, to work, and secondary noun opera, work.

2. Italic compound *opi-fici-om (see dhë- ).

3. Suffixed form *op-en-ent-. OPULENT, from Latin dissimilated opulentus, rich, wealthy.

4. Suffixed form *op-ni-. OMNI-, OMNIBU; OMNIUM-gatherum, from Latin omnis, all (< “abundant”).

5. Suffixed (superlative) form *op-tamo-. OPTIMUM, from Latin optimus, best (< “wealthiest”).

6. COPIOUS, COP; CORNUCOPIA, from Latin cöpia, profusion, plenty, from prefixed form *co-op- (co-, collective and intensive prefix; see kom ).

(Pokorny 1. op- 780.)

or- Large bird. Oldest form *@3er-, colored to *@3or-.

1. Suffixed form *or-n-. ERNE, from Old English earn, eagle, from Germanic *arnuz, eagle.

2. Suffixed form *or-n-ïth-. ORNITHO; AEPYORNIS, ICHTHYORNIS, NOTORNIS, from Greek ornïs (stem ornïth-), bird.

(Pokorny 1. er- 325.)

orbh- To change allegiance or status. Oldest form *@3erbh-, colored *@3orbh-. Suffixed form *orbh-o-, “bereft of father,” also “deprived of free status.” a. ORPHAN, from Greek orphanos, orphaned; b. ROBOT, from Czech robota, compulsory labor, drudgery, from Old Church Slavonic rabota, servitude, from rabù, slave, from Old Slavic *orbù; c. GASTARBEITER, from Old High German arabeit(i), labor, from Germanic *arb-aithi- (source of suffix uncertain).

(Pokorny orbho- 781.)

ors- Buttocks, backside.

1. Suffixed form *ors-o-. a. ASS2, from Old English ærs, ears, backside; b. DODO, from Middle Dutch ærs, backside, tail. Both a and b from Germanic *arsaz.

2. Suffixed form *ors-ä-. a. URO-2, -urou; ANTHURIUM, ANURAN, CYNOSURE, DASYURE, EREMURUS, OPHIUROID, OXYURIASIS, SCIURID, SQUIRREL, TRICHURIASIS, from Greek ourä, tail; orros, sacrum b. SILURID, from Greek silouros, sheatfish, probably from ourä, tail (with an obscure first element).

hittite arrash, armenian or, buttock; old irish err, tail

(Pokorny ers- 340.)

ös- Mouth. Oldest form *@3ös-, but precise preform uncertain.

1. ORAL, OS1, OSCILLATE, OSCULATE, OSCULUM, OSTIARY, OSTIUM, USHE; INOSCULATE, ORIFICE, ORINASAL, OROTUND, OSCITANCY, PERORAL, from Latin ös (stem ör-), mouth, face, orifice, and derivative östium (< suffixed form *ös-to-), door.

2. AURIGA, from Latin aurïga, charioteer (< *ör-ïg-, “he who manages the (horse's) bit”; -ïg-, lengthened from ig-, driving, from *ag-; see ag- ), possibly from ös-.

(Pokorny 1. öus- 784.)

ost- Bone. Oldest form *@2ost-, with e-grade *@2est- colored to *@2ast-.

1. OS2, OSSEOUS, OSSICLE, OSSUAR; OSSIFRAGE, OSSIFY, from Latin os (stem oss-), bone.


3. Suffixed form *ost-r-. a. OSTRACIZE, OSTRACOD, OSTRACO; OSTRACODERM, PERIOSTRACUM, from Greek ostrakon, shell, potsherd; b. e-grade form *@est-, becoming *ast-. OYSTER, from Greek ostreon, oyster; c. ASTRAGAL, ASTRAGALUS, from Greek astragalos, vertebra, ball of the ankle joint, knucklebone, Ionic molding.

(Pokorny ost(h)- 783.)

ous- Also aus-. Ear. Oldest form *@2ous-, with e-grade *@2eus- colored to *@2aus-.

1. Suffixed form *ous-en-. EAR1, from Old English ëare, ear, from Germanic *auzön-.

2. Suffixed form *aus-i-. AURAL1, AURICL; AURIFORM, ORMER, from Latin auris, ear.

3. AUSCULTATION, SCOUT1, from Latin auscultäre, to listen to (< *aus-klit-ä-; *aus- + *kli-to-, inclined; see klei- ).

4. Suffixed basic form *ous-os-. OTIC, OTO; MYOSOTIS, PAROTID gland, from Greek ous (stem öt-), ear.

5. Basic form *ous- in Greek compound *lag-ous- (see slëg- ).

(Pokorny 2. öus- 785.)

owi- Sheep. Oldest form *@2owi-.

1. EWE, from Old English ëwe, eöwu, ewe, from Germanic *awi-.

2. OVINE, from Latin ovis, sheep.

(Pokorny óu_i-s 784.)

pä- To protect, feed. Oldest form *pe@2-, colored to *pa@2-, contracted to *pä-. Derivatives include fodder, forage, fur, food, foster, pasture, pantry, and company.

1. Suffixed form *pä-trom. a. FODDER, from Old English födor, fodder; b. FORAGE, FORAY, FOURRAGère, from Old French feurre, fodder; c. FUR, FURRIER, from Old French forre, fuerre, trimming made from animal skin, fur (< “sheath, case, lining”). a–c all from Germanic *födram.

2. Suffixed form *pä-dhlom (doublet of *pä-trom). PABULUM, from Latin päbulum, food, fodder.

3. Extended form *pät-. a. FOOD, from Old English föda, food, from Germanic *föd-, food; b. FEED, from Old English fëdan, to feed, from Germanic denominative *födjan, to give food to; c. suffixed form *pät-tro-. FOSTER, from Old English föstor, food, nourishment, from Germanic *föstra-.

4. Extended form *päs-. a. Suffixed form *päs-sko-. PASTUR; ANTIPASTO, REPAST, from Latin päscere, to feed; b. suffixed form *päs-tor-. PASTERN, PASTOR, PESTER, from Latin pästor, shepherd; c. suffixed form *päs-t-ni-. PANADA, PANATELA, PANIC grass, PANNIER, PANOCHA, PANTRY, PASTILLE, PENUCH; APPANAGE, COMPANION1, COMPANY, from Latin pänis, bread.

5. Suffixed form *pä-tor-. BEZOAR, from Persian päd, protecting against, from Iranian *pätar- (Avestan pätar-).

6. Suffixed form *pä-won-, protector. SATRAP, from Old Persian khshathra-pävä, protector of the province.

(Pokorny pä- 787, 1. pö(i)- 839.)

pa@wr, Fire. Oldest form *pe@2wr,, colored to *pa@2wr,, with zero-grade *p@2ur- metathesized to *pu@2r-. Zero-grade form *pür- (contracted from *pu@r-).

1. FIRE, from Old English fÿr, fire, from Germanic suffixed form *für-i-.


(Pokorny peu_ör 828.)

pag- Also pak-. To fasten (fixer). Oldest forms *pagì-, *pakì-, becoming *pag-, *pak- in centum languages. Derivatives include fang, peace, pact, palisade, and travel.

1. Lengthened-grade form *päk-. FAY1, from Old English fëgan, to fit closely, from Germanic *fögjan, to join, fit.

2. Nasalized form *pa-n-g-, also *pa-n-k-. a. i FANG, from Old English fang, feng, plunder, booty, from Germanic *fangam, *fangiz; ii VANG, from Dutch vangen, to catch, from remade Germanic verb *fangan; iii NEWFANGLED, from Middle English *-fangel, taken, akin to Old High German -fangolon, to close, from Germanic *fanglön, to grasp. (i)–(iii) all derivatives of Germanic *fanhan, to seize; b. COMPACT1, IMPACT, IMPINGE, SPINTO, from Latin pangere, to fasten.

3. Root form *pâk-. a. PACE2, PAX, PAY1, PEAC; APPEASE, PACIFIC, PACIFY, from Latin päx, peace (< “a binding together by treaty or agreement”); b. PACT, PATIO, from Latin pacïscï, to agree.

4. Suffixed form *pak-slo-. a. PALE1, PALISADE, PAWL, PEEL3, POLE2; IMPALE, TRAVAIL, TRAVEL, from Latin pälus, stake (fixed in the ground); b. probably Latin päla, spade: PALETTE, PEEL2.

5. Lengthened-grade form *päg-. a. PAGAN, PEASANT, from Latin pägus, “boundary staked out on the ground,” district, village, country; b. PAGE1, PAGEANT, from Latin pägina, “trellis to which a row of vines is fixed,” hence (by metaphor) column of writing, page; c. PROPAGATE, from Latin pröpägäre, to propagate (< “to fix before”; prö-, before, in front; see per1 ); d. PECTIN, PEGMATIT; AREOPAGUS, MASTOPEXY, from Greek pëgnunai, to fasten, coagulate, with derivative pagos (< *pag-o-), mass, hill.

(Pokorny pâkì- 787.)

päl- To touch, feel, shake. Earlier *pe@2l-, colored to *pa@2l-, contracted to *päl-.

1 a. FEEL, from Old English fëlan, to examine by touch, feel; b. SPRACHGEFühl, from Old High German vuolen, to feel. Both a and b from Germanic *följan, to feel.

2. Reduplicated zero-grade form *pal-p- (from *p@l-p(@)-. a. PALP, from Latin palpus, a touching; b. PALPABLE, PALPATE1, PALPITATE, from Latin palpärï, palpäre, to stroke gently, touch; c. PALPEBRA, from Latin palpebra, eyelid (< “that which shakes or moves quickly”).

3. Perhaps expressive reduplicated form *pal-pal-. PAPILIONACEOUS, PAPILLON, PAPILLOTE, PAVILION, from Latin päpiliö, butterfly.

4. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *pal-yo-. CATAPULT, from Greek pallein, to sway, brandish.

5. Perhaps suffixed form *psal-yo-. PSALM, PSALTERY, from Greek psallein, to pluck, play the harp (but more likely of imitative origin).

(Pokorny 1. G. pel- 801, polo- 841.)

pan- Fabric.

1 a. VANE, from Old English fana, flag, banner, weathercock; b. Germanic compound *gund-fanön- (see gwhen- ). Both a and b from Germanic *fanön.

2. Extended form *panno-. PANE, PANEL, from Latin pannus, piece of cloth, rag.

(Pokorny pân- 788.)

pant- All. Attested only in Tocharian and Greek. PAN; DIAPASON, PANCRATIUM, PANCREAS, from Greek päs (neuter pan, stem pant-), all. (In Pokorny 1. kìeu- 592.)

papa A child's word for “father,” a linguistic near-universal found in many languages.

1. PAPA, from French papa, father.

2. PAPPUS, POPE, from Greek pappäs, father, and pappos, grandfather.

(Pokorny pap(p)a 789.)

past- Solid, firm.

1 a. FAST1; SHAMEFACED, STEADFAST, from Old English fæst, fixed, firm; b. AVAST, from Middle Dutch vast, firm, fast. Both a and b from Germanic *fastuz, firm, fast.

2. FASTEN, from Old English fæstnian, to fasten, establish, from Germanic *fastinön, to make firm or fast.

3. HANDFAST, from Old Norse festa, to fix, affirm, from Germanic causative *fastjan, to make firm. 4a. FAST2, from Old English fæstan, to abstain from food; b. BREAKFAST, from Old Norse fasta, to abstain from food. Both a and b from Germanic *fastën, to hold fast, observe abstinence.

(Pokorny pasto- 789.)

pau-1 Few, little. Oldest form *pe@2u-, colored to *pa@2u-. Derivatives include few, pauper, foal, pony, and pullet.

I. Adjectival form *pau-, few, little.

1. FEW, from Old English fëawe, few, from Germanic *fawaz.

2. Suffixed form *pau-ko-. PAUCITY, POCO, from Latin paucus, little, few.

3. Suffixed form *pau-ro- in metathetical form *par-wo-. PARAFFIN, PARVOVIRUS, from Latin parvus, little, small, neuter parvum, becoming parum, little, rarely.

4. Compound *pau-paros, producing little, poor (*par-os, producing; see per@-1 ). PAUPER, POOR, POVERT; DEPAUPERATE, IMPOVERISH, from Latin pauper, poor.

II. Suffixed zero-grade form *pu-lo-, young of an animal.

1. FOAL, from Old English fola, young horse, colt, from Germanic *fulön-.

2. FILLY, from Old Norse fylja, young female horse, from Germanic derivative *fuljö.

III. Basic form *pau- and zero-grade form *pû-, boy, child.

1. Suffixed form *pu-ero-. PUERILE, PUERPERAL, from Latin puer, child.

2. Extended form *put-. a. POLTROON, PONY, POOL2, POULARD, POULTER's measure, POULTRY, PULLET, PUNCHINELL; CATCHPOLE, from Latin pullus (< *putslo-), young of an animal, chicken; b. PUSILLANIMOUS, from Latin pusillus (< *putslo-lo-), old diminutive of pullus; c. further suffixed form *put-o-. PUTTO, from Latin putus, boy.

3. Suffixed form *paw-id-. PEDO-2; ENCYCLOPEDIA, ORTHOPEDICS, from Greek pais (stem paid-), child (> paideia, education).

(Pokorny pöu- 842.)

pau-2 To cut, strike, stamp. Oldest form *pe@2u-, colored to *pa@2u-.

1. Suffixed (participial) zero-grade form *pu-to-, cut, struck. a. PUTAMEN, PUTATIV; ACCOUNT, AMPUTATE, COMPUTE, COUNT1, DEPUTE, DISPUTE, IMPUTE, REPUTE, from Latin putäre, to prune, clean, settle an account, think over, reflect; b. possibly Latin puteus, well: PIT1.

2. Basic form *pau-. a. Suffixed form *pau-yo. PAVE, PAVé, from Latin pavïre, to beat; b. suffixed (stative) form *paw-ë-. PAVID, from Latin pavëre, to fear (< “to be struck”); c. perhaps Greek paiein, to beat: ANAPEST.

(Pokorny 3. pëu- 827.)

ped- Foot. Derivatives include foot, fetter, pioneer, millipede, impeach, pajamas, fetch1, pessimism, and impeccable.

I. Nominal root.

1. Lengthened o-grade form *pöd-. FOOT, from Old English föt, foot, from Germanic *föt-.

2. Suffixed form *ped-ero-. FETTER, from Old English fetor, feter, leg iron, fetter, from Germanic *feterö.

3. Suffixed form *ped-el-. FETLOCK, from Middle English fitlock, fetlock, fetlock, from a Germanic source akin to Old High German vizzelach, fetlock, from Germanic *fetel-.


5. Suffixed form *ped-yo-. a. EXPEDITE, from Latin expedïre, to free from a snare (ex-, out of; see eghs ); b. IMPEDE, from Latin impedïre, “to put in fetters, hobble, shackle,” entangle, hinder (in-, in; see en ).

6. Suffixed form *ped-ikä-. IMPEACH, from Latin pedica, fetter, snare.


8. Suffixed form *ped-ya. TRAPEZIUM, from Greek peza, foot.

9. Suffixed form *ped-o-. a. PEDO-1; PARALLELEPIPED, from Greek pedon, ground, soil; b. BAISA, PADA, PAISA, PICE, PIE3, PUG3, from Sanskrit padam, footstep, foot, and pät, foot; c. PAJAMA, TEAPOY, from Middle Persian päï, leg, foot; d. lengthened-grade form *pëd-o-. i PILOT, from Greek pëdon, rudder, steering oar; ii DIAPEDESIS, from Greek pëdän, to leap.

10. Suffixed form ped-ï-. CYPRIPEDIUM, from Greek pedilon, sandal.

II. Verbal root *ped-, to walk, stumble, fall.

1. FETCH1, from Old English fetian, feccean, to bring back, from Germanic *fetën. 2a. Suffixed (comparative) form *ped-yos-. PEJORATIO; IMPAIR, from Latin pëior, worse (< “stumbling”); b. suffixed (superlative) form *ped-samo-. PESSIMISM, from Latin pessimus, worst; c. suffixed form *ped-ko-. PECCADILLO, PECCANT, PECCAV; IMPECCABLE, from Latin peccäre, to stumble, sin. a–c all from Latin *ped-.

(Pokorny 2. pêd- 790.)

pë(i)- Also pë-, pï-. To hurt. Contracted from *pe@1(i)-; zero-grades *pi@1-, *p@1-.

1. Suffixed (participial) form *pï-ont- (< *pi@-ont-). FIEND, from Old English fëond, fïond, enemy, devil, from Germanic *fïjand-, hating, hostile.

2. Possibly *pë- in suffixed zero-grade form *p@-to-. PASSIBLE, PASSION, PASSIVE, PATIEN; COMPASSION, from Latin patï, to suffer.

(Pokorny pë(i)- 792.)

pei@- To be fat, swell. Derivatives include fat, pituitary, and Irish.

I. Zero-grade form *pï- (contracted from *pi@-).

1. Possibly suffixed form *pï-tu-. PIP5, PITUITARY, from Latin pïtuïta, moisture exuded from trees, gum, phlegm.

2. Possibly suffixed form *pï-nu-. PINE1, PINEAL, PINNACE, PIñon, PINO; PIña cloth, from Latin pïnus, pine tree (yielding a resin).

3. Suffixed form *pï-won-. PROPIONIC acid, from Greek pïön, fat.

4. Suffixed form *pï-wer-, “fat, fertile.” a. ERSE, IRISH, from Old English ïras, the Irish, from *ïwer-iü, the prehistoric Celtic name for Ireland; b. PIERIAN Spring, from Greek Pïeriä, a region of Macedonia, from *Pïwer-iä-.

II. Extended o-grade form *poid-. FAT, from Old English faët(t), fat, from Germanic past participle *faitidaz, fattened, from derivative verb *faitjan, to fatten, from *faitaz, plump, fat.

(Pokorny pei_(@)- 793.)

peig- Also peik- (earlier *peikì-, remaining as such in satem languages). To cut, mark (by incision).

1. Alternate form *peik-. FILE2, from Old English fïl, file, from Germanic *fïhala, cutting tool.

2. Nasalized zero-grade form *pi-n-g-. PAINT, PICTOR, PICTURE, PICTURESQUE, PIGMENT, PIMENTO, PINT, PINT; DEPICT, PICTOGRAPH, from Latin pingere, to embroider, tattoo, paint, picture.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *pik-ro-. PICRO-, from Greek pikros, sharp, bitter.

4. O-grade form *poik-. POIKILOTHERM, from Greek poikilos, spotted, pied, various.

(Pokorny 1. peig- 794.)

peku- Wealth, movable property. Oldest form *pekìu-, becoming *peku- in centum languages.

1 a. FELLOW, from Old Norse fë, property, cattle; b. FEE, FIE; ENFEOFF, FEOFFMENT, from Old French fie, fief, and Old English feoh, cattle, goods, money; c. FEUD2, from Medieval Latin feudum, feudal estate. a–c all from Germanic *fehu-.

2. PECORINO, from Latin pecus, cattle.

3. Suffixed form *peku-n-. PECUNIAR; IMPECUNIOUS, from Latin pecünia, property, wealth.

4. Suffixed form *peku-l-. PECULATE, PECULIAR, from Latin pecülium, riches in cattle, private property. (In Pokorny 2. pekì- 797.)

pekw- To cook, ripen.

1. Assimilated form (in Italic and Celtic) *kwekw-. a. COOK, CUISINE, KITCHEN, QUITTO; APRICOT, BISCOTTO, BISCUIT, CHARCUTERIE, CONCOCT, DECOCT, PRECOCIOUS, RICOTTA, TERRA cotta, from Latin coquere, to cook; b. CULINARY, KILN, from Latin culïna, kitchen, deformed from coquïna.

2. PEP; PUMPKIN, from Greek pepön, ripe.

3. PEPTIC, PEPTIZ; DRUPE, EUPEPTIC, PEPSIN, PEPTONE, from Greek peptein, to cook, ripen, digest (> peptos, cooked).

4. DYSPEPSIA, from Greek -pepsiä, digestion.

5. PUKKA, from Sanskrit pakva-, ripe.

(Pokorny peku_- 798.)

pel-1 Pale. Derivatives include pallor, falcon, and poliomyelitis.

1. Suffixed variant form *pal-wo-. a. i FALLOW deer, from Old English fealu, fealo, reddish yellow; ii FAUVISM, from Frankish *falw-, reddish-yellow. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *falwaz; b. PALE2, PALLID, PALLO; APPALL, from Latin pallëre, to be pale; c. PALOMINO, from Latin palumbës (influenced in form by Latin columbus, dove), ringdove, “gray-bird.”

2. Probably suffixed form *pel-ko-. FALCO; GYRFALCON, from Late Latin falcö, falcon, from Germanic *falkön-, falcon (< “gray bird”; but this is also possibly from the Late Latin).

3. Suffixed extended form *peli-wo-. a. PELOPS, from Greek pelios, dark; b. o-grade form *poli-wo-. POLIOMYELITIS, from Greek polios, gray.

4. Perhaps Greek pelargos, stork (< *pelawo-argos, “black-white bird”; argos, white; see arg- ): PELARGONIUM.

(Pokorny 6. pel- 804.)

pel-2 To fold.

1. Extended o-grade form *polt-. a. FOLD1, from Old English fealdan, faldan, to fold; b. FALTBOAT, from Old High German faldan, to fold; c. FURBELOW, from Italian falda, fold, flap, pleat; d. i FALDSTOOL, from Medieval Latin compound faldistolium, folding chair; ii FAUTEUIL, from Old French faldestoel, faldstool. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *faldistölaz, “folding stool” (*stölaz, stool; see stä- ); e. -fold, from Old English -feald, -fald, -fold, from Germanic combining form *-falthaz, *-faldaz. a–e all from Germanic *falthan, *faldan.

2. Combining form *-plo-. a. DECUPLE, MULTIPLE, OCTUPLE, QUADRUPLE, QUINTUPLE, SEPTUPLE, SEXTUPLE, TRIPLE, from Latin -plus, -fold (as in triplus, threefold); b. -ploi; TRIPLOBLASTIC, from Greek -plos, -ploos, -fold (as in haploos, haplous, single, and triploos, triple).

(Pokorny 3a. pel- 802.)

pel-3 Skin, hide.

1. Suffixed form *pel-no-. FELL3, from Old English fell, skin, hide, from Germanic *felnam.

2. FILM, from Old English filmen, membrane, from Germanic suffixed form *fel-man-ja-.

3. Suffixed form *pel-ni-. PELISSE, PELLICLE, PELT1, PELTRY, PILLIO; PELLAGRA, SURPLICE, from Latin pellis, skin.

4. ERYSIPELAS, from Greek -pelas, skin.

5. Suffixed form *pel-to-. PELTATE, from Greek peltë, a shield (made of hide).

(Pokorny 3b. pel- 803.)

pel-4 To sell. Lengthened o-grade form *pöl-. BIBLIOPOLE, MONOPOLY, from Greek pölein, to sell.

(Pokorny 5. pel- 804.)

pel-5 To thrust, strike, drive. Derivatives include anvil, filter, pulsate, polish, and appeal.

I. Suffixed form *pel-de-.

1 a. ANVIL, from Old English anfilt(e), anfealt, anvil (“something beaten on”); b. i FELT1, from Old English felt, felt; ii FILTER, FILTRATE, from Medieval Latin filtrum, filter, piece of felt. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *feltaz, *filtiz, compressed wool. Both a and b from Germanic *felt-, *falt-, to beat.

2. PELT2, POUSSETTE, PULSATE, PULSE1, PUS; COMPEL, DISPEL, EXPEL, IMPEL, IMPULSE, PROPEL, REPEL, from Latin pellere (past participle pulsus), to push, drive, strike. 3a. Suffixed o-grade form *pol-o-, fuller of cloth. POLISH, from Latin polïre, to make smooth, polish (< “to full cloth”); b. suffixed o-grade form *pol-o- (with different accentuation from the preceding), fulled (of cloth). INTERPOLATE, from Latin compound adjective interpolis (also interpolus), refurbished (inter-, between; see en ).

II. Extended form *pel@2-.

1. Present stem *pelnä-. a. APPEAL, PEAL, RAPPEL, REPEAL, from Latin appelläre, “to drive to,” address, entreat, appeal, call (ad-, to; see ad- ); b. COMPELLATION, from Latin compelläre, to accost, address (com-, intensive prefix; see kom ).

2. Possible suffixed zero-grade extended adverbial form *pl,@-ti-, or locative plural *pl,@-si. PLESIOSAUR, from Greek plësios, near (< “pushed toward”), from pre-Greek *pläti or *pläsi.

(Pokorny 2a. pel- 801.)

pel@-1 To fill; with derivatives referring to abundance and multitude. Oldest form *pel@1-; variant *ple@1-, contracted to *plë-. Derivatives include fill, plenty, folk, accomplish, expletive, and plebeian.

I. Zero-grade form *pl,@-.

1. Suffixed form *pl,@-no-. FULL1, from Old English full, full, from Germanic *fulnaz, *fullaz, full.

2. FILL, from Old English fyllan, to fill (from Germanic derivative verb *fulljan, to fill), and fyllu, full amount (from Germanic abstract noun *full-ïnö-, fullness).

3. PLENARY, PLENITUDE, PLENTY, PLENU; PLENIPOTENTIARY, REPLENISH, TERREPLEIN, from Latin plënus, full, from Latin stem *plëno-, replacing *pläno- (influenced by Latin verb plëre, to fill; see IV. 1. below).

4. Suffixed form *pl,@-go-. a. FOLK, from Old English folc, people; b. HERRENVOLK, VOLKSLIED, from Old High German folc, people. Both a and b from Germanic *folkam.

II. Suffixed form *p(e)l@-u-.

1. Obscure comparative form. PIù, PLURAL, PLU; NONPLUS, PLUPERFECT, SURPLUS, from Latin plüs, more (Archaic Latin plous). See also IV. 5. below.

2. O-grade form *pol(@)-u-. POLY; HOI polloi, from Greek polus, much, many.

3. Possibly from this root (but probably rather from pel-1 ) is Latin palüs, marsh (? < “inundated”): PALUDAL.

III. Suffixed form *p(e)l@-o-. Latin compound manipulus (see man-2 ).

IV. Variant form *plë-.


2. Possibly suffixed form *plë-dhw-. PLEBE, PLEBEIAN, PLEB; PLEBISCITE, from Latin plëbs, plëbës, the people, multitude.

3. Suffixed form *plë-dhwo-. PLETHOR; PLETHYSMOGRAPH, from Greek derivative verb plëthein, to be full.

4. Suffixed adjective (positive) form *plë-ro-. PLEROCERCOID, from Greek plërës, full.

5. Suffixed (comparative) form *plë-i(s)on-. PLEO-, PLEONAS; PLEIOTAXY, PLEIOTROPISM, PLIOCENE, from Greek pleön, pleiön, more.

6. Suffixed (superlative) form *plë-isto-. PLEISTOCENE, from Greek pleistos, most.

V. Possibly Sanskrit pürah., cake (< “that which fills or satisfies”): POORI.

(Pokorny 1. pel- 798.)

pel@-2 Flat; to spread. Oldest form *pel@2-; variant *ple@2-, colored to *pla@2-, contracted to *plä-. Derivatives include field, planet, plasma, plastic, and polka.

1. Suffixed form *pel(@)-tu-. FIELD, from Old English feld, open field, from Germanic *felthuz, flat land.

2. Suffixed form *pel(@)-t-es- (by-form of *pel(@)-tu-). a. FELDSPAR, from Old High German feld, field; b. VELDT, from Middle Dutch veld, velt, field. Both a and b from Germanic *feltha-, flat land.

3. Variant form *plä-. a. Suffixed form *plä-ru-. FLOOR, from Old English flör, floor, from Germanic *flöruz, floor; b. suffixed form *plä-no-. LLANO, PIANO2, PLAIN, PLANARIAN, PLANE1, PLANE2, PLANE3, PLANISH, PLANO-, PLANUL; ESPLANADE, EXPLAIN, PIANOFORTE, from Latin plänus, flat, level, even, plain, clear.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl,@-mä-. PALM1, PALM2, PALMARY, from Latin palma (< *palama), palm of the hand.

5. Possibly extended variant form *plan-. a. PLANE; APLANATIC, from Greek planästhai, to wander (< “to spread out”); b. perhaps Germanic *flan-. FLâneur, from French flâner, to walk the streets idly, from a source akin to Old Norse flana, to wander aimlessly.

6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl@-dh-. -plasia, PLASMA, -plast, PLASTER, PLASTIC, PLASTID, -plast; DYSPLASIA, METAPLASM, TOXOPLASMA, from Greek plassein (< *plath-yein), to mold, “spread out.”

7. O-grade form *pol@-. a. POLYNYA, from Russian polyì, open; b. POLACK, POLKA, from Slavic polje, broad flat land, field.

(Pokorny pel@- 805.) See also extensions pläk-1 and plat- .

pel@-3 Citadel, fortified high place. Oldest form perhaps *pel@3- (but exact laryngeal uncertain). Zero-grade form *pl,@-. POLICE, POLICY1, POLIS, POLITIC, POLIT; ACROPOLIS, COSMOPOLIS, COSMOPOLITE, MEGALOPOLIS, METROPOLIS, NECROPOLIS, POLICLINIC, PROPOLIS, from Greek polis, city (phonological development unclear). (In Pokorny 1. pel- 798.)

penkwe Five. Derivatives include five, Pentecost, quintessence, finger, and foist.

I. Basic form *penkwe.

1. Assimilated form *pempe. a. i FIV; FIFTY, from Old English fïf, five, with derivative fïftig, fifty (-tëne, ten; see dekm, ); ii FIN2, from Old High German finf, funf, five. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fimf; b. i FIFTEEN, from Old English fïftëne, fifteen; ii FEMTO-, from Old Norse fimmtän, fifteen. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *fimftehun, fifteen (*tehun, ten; see dekm, ).

2. Assimilated form *kwenkwe. a. CINQUAIN, CINQUE, QUINQUE; CINQUECENTO, CINQUEFOIL, QUINCUNX, from Latin quïnque, five; b. KENO, QUINATE, from Latin distributive quïnï, five each; c. QUINDECENNIAL, from Latin compound quïndecim, fifteen (decem, ten; see dekm, ); d. QUINCENTENARY, from Latin quïngentï, five hundred.


4. PUNCH3; PACHISI, from Sanskrit pañca, five.

II. Compound *penkwe-(d)konta, “five tens,” fifty (*-(d)konta, group of ten; see dekm, ).

1. QUINQUAGENARIAN, QUINQUAGESIMA, from Latin quïnquägintä, fifty.

2. PENTECOST, PINKSTER flower, from Greek pentëkonta, fifty.

III. Ordinal adjective *penkw-to-.

1. FIFTH, from Old English fïfta, fifth, from Germanic *fimftön-.

2. QUINT1, QUINTAIN, QUINTET, QUINTIL; QUINTESSENCE, QUINTILLION, QUINTUPLE, from Latin quïntus (< *quinc-tos), feminine quïnta, fifth.

IV. Suffixed form *penkw-ro-. FINGER, from Old English finger, finger, from Germanic *fingwraz, finger (< “one of five”).

V. Suffixed reduced zero-grade form *pn,k-sti-. a. FIST, from Old English fÿst, fist; b. FOIST, from Dutch vuist, fist. Both a and b from Germanic *funhstiz.

(Pokorny penku_e 808, pn,ksti- 839.)

pent- To tread, go. Derivatives include find, pontiff, and sputnik.

1. FIND, from Old English findan, to find, from Germanic *finthan, to come upon, discover.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *pont-i-. a. PONS, PONTIFEX, PONTIFF, PONTINE, PONTOON, PUNT1; TRANSPONTINE, from Latin pöns (stem pont-), bridge (earliest meaning, “way, passage,” preserved in the priestly title pontifex, “he who prepares the way”; -fex, maker; see dhë- ); b. SPUTNIK, from Russian sputnik, fellow traveler, sputnik, from put', path, way.

3. Zero-grade form *pn,t-. PERIPATETIC, from Greek patein, to tread, walk.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *pn,t-@-. a. PATH, from Old English pæth, path; b. PAD2; FOOTPAD, from Middle Dutch pad, way, path. Both a and b from Germanic *patha-, way, path, probably borrowed (? via Scythian) from Iranian *path-.

(Pokorny pent- 808.)

per1 Base of prepositions and preverbs with the basic meanings of “forward,” “through,” and a wide range of extended senses such as “in front of,” “before,” “early,” “first,” “chief,” “toward,” “against,” “near,” “at,” “around.” Derivatives include far, paradise, afford, first, protein, veneer, probe, privy, pristine, and priest.

I. Basic form *per and extended form *peri.

1 a. TURNVEREIN, from Middle High German vereinen, to unite, from Old High German far-; b. VEER2, from Middle Dutch vieren, to let out, slacken; c. Germanic compound *fer-getan (see ghend- ); d. FRUMP, from Middle Dutch verrompelen, to wrinkle. a–d all from Germanic *fer-, *far-, used chiefly as an intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal, or completion.

2. Suffixed (comparative) form *per-ero-, farther away. FAR, from Old English feor(r), far, from Germanic *fer(e)ra.

3. PER, PER; PARAMOUNT, PARAMOUR, PARGET, PARTERRE, PARVENU, from Latin per, through, for, by.

4. PERI; PERISSODACTYL, from Greek peri, around, near, beyond. 5a. PALANQUIN, PUGGREE, from Sanskrit pari-, couch; b. PARADISE, from Avestan pairi-, around; c. BARD2, PURDAH, from Old Persian pari, around, over; d. Old Iranian compound *pari-väraka- (see wer-4 ). a–d all from Indo-Iranian *pari-, around.

6. PERESTROIKA, from Old Russian pere-, around, again, from Slavic *per-.

II. Zero-grade form *pr,-.

1 a. FOR, from Old English for, before, instead of, on account of; b. FOR-, from Old English for-, prefix denoting destruction, pejoration, exclusion, or completion. Both a and b from Germanic *fur, before, in.

2. Extended form *pr,t-. FORT; AFFORD, from Old English forth, from Germanic *furth-, forward.

3. Suffixed (comparative) form *pr,-tero-. FURTHER, from Old English furthra, furthor, farther away, from Germanic *furthera-. 4a. Compound *pr,-st-i- or *por-st-i-, with o-grade form *por- (see stä- ); b. PORRECT, from Latin por-, forth, forward. Both a and b from Latin por- from *pr,-.

5. Suffixed form *pr,-söd. PARGET, from Latin porrö, forward.

III. Extended zero-grade form *pr,@-.

1. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr,@-mo-. a. FORMER2, from Old English forma, first, from Germanic *fruma-, *furma-; b. FOREMOST, from Old English formest, first, from Germanic *frumista-, *furmista-; c. Latin compound prandium, “first meal,” late breakfast, lunch (probably < *präm-d-ium < *pr,@m-(e)d-yo-; second element *-(e)d-, to eat; see ed- ).

2. Suffixed (superlative) form *pr,@-isto-. FIRST, from Old English fyrst, fyrest, first, from Germanic *furista-, foremost.

3. Suffixed form *pr,@-wo-. a. PROW, from Greek pröira, forward part of a ship, from analogically suffixed form *pröw-arya; b. PROTEIN, PROTIST, PROTO-, PROTON, from Greek prötos, first, foremost, from suffixed (superlative) form *pröw-ato-. Both a and b from Greek *pröwo-, first, foremost.

4. Suffixed form *pr,@-i. ARPENT, from Latin arepennis, half-acre (second element obscure), from Gaulish ari (combining form are-), before, from Celtic *(p)ari, *are.

IV. Extended form *pr,@â.

1 a. FORE, FORE; FOREFATHER, from Old English fore, for, before; b. VORLAGE, from Old High German fora, before; c. BEFORE, from Old English beforan, before, from Germanic prefixed and suffixed form *bi-fora-na, in the front (*bi-, at, by; see ambhi ). a–c all from Germanic *fura, before.

2. PARA-1; PALFREY, from Greek para, beside, alongside of, beyond.

3. PURANA, from Sanskrit purä, before.

V. Extended form *prô.

1 a. FRAE, FR; FROWARD, from Old Norse frä, from, from Germanic *fra, forward, away from; b. Germanic *fra-, completely, in compounds (see ed- , aik- ).

2. Suffixed form *prô-mo-. a. FRAME, FROM, from Old English fram, forward, from, from Germanic *fram, from; b. FURNISH, FURNITURE, VENEER, from Old French f(o)urnir, to supply, provide, from Germanic derivative verb *frumjan, to further, from Germanic *frum, forward; c. PRAM2, from Czech prám, raft.

3. Suffixed form *prö-wo-. a. i FRAU, FRäulein, from Old High German frouwa, lady; ii FREYJA, from Old Norse freyja, lady. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *fröwö-, lady, lengthened-grade feminine of *frawan-; lord; b. FREY, from Old Norse Freyr, from Germanic *frawa-, alteration of *frawan-. lord; c. form *prö-wo-, independently created in Slavic. NAPRAPATHY, from Old Church Slavonic pravù, true.

4. PRIDE, PRO1, PRO-1, PRODIGALITY, PROUD, PROWES; IMPROVE, PURCHASE, from Latin prö, prô-, before, for, instead of.

5. Suffixed form *prö-no-. PRONE, from Latin prönus, leaning forward.

6. Possible suffixed form *pro-ko-. RECIPROCAL, from Latin compound reciprocus, alternating, “backward and forward” (*re-ko-, backward; see re-).

7. Suffixed adverb *pro-kwe. a. APPROACH, RAPPROCHEMENT, REPROACH, from Latin prope, near; b. suffixed form *prokw-inkwo-. PROPINQUITY, from Latin propinquus, near; c. suffixed (superlative) form *prokw-isamo-. PROXIMAT; APPROXIMATE, from Latin proximus, nearest.

8. Compound *pro-bhw-o-, growing well or straightforward (*bhw-o-, to grow; see bheu@- ). PROBABLE, PROBE, PROBITY, PROOF, PROV; APPROVE, IMPROBITY, REPROVE, from Latin probus, upright, good, virtuous.

9. PRO-2, from Greek pro, before, in front, forward.

10. Suffixed (comparative) form *pro-tero-. HYSTERON proteron, PROTEROZOIC, from Greek proteros, before, former.

11. PRAKRIT, from Sanskrit pra-, before, forth.

12. Celtic *ro-, intensive prefix. GALORE, from Old Irish roar, enough, from Celtic compound *ro-wero-, sufficiency (*-wero-, see wër@-o- ).

VI. Extended forms *prai-, *prei-.

1 a. PRE; PRETERIT, from Latin prae, before; b. compound *prai-ghes-to- (see ghes- ).

2. Suffixed (comparative) form *prei-yos-. PRIOR2, from Latin prior, former, higher, superior.

3. Suffixed form *prei-wo-. a. PRIVATE, PRIVILEGE, PRIVITY, PRIV; DEPRIVE, from Latin prïvus, single, alone (< “standing in front,” “isolated from others”); b. PROPER, PROPERT; APPROPRIATE, EXPROPRIATE, PROPRIOCEPTION, PROPRIOCEPTOR, PROPRIUM, from Latin proprius, one's own, particular (< prö prïvö, in particular, from the ablative of prïvus, single; prö, for; see V. 4. ).

4. Extended form *preis-. a. Suffixed (superlative) form *preis-mo-. i PREMIER, PRIMAL, PRIMARY, PRIMATE, PRIME, PRIMITIVE, PRIMO, PRIMU; IMPRIMIS, PRIMAVERA1, PRIMEVAL, PRIMIPARA, PRIMOGENITOR, PRIMOGENITURE, PRIMORDIAL, from Latin prïmus (< *prïsmus; ablative plural prïmïs), first, foremost; ii PRINCE, PRINCIPAL, PRINCIPLE, from Latin compound prïnceps, “he who takes first place,” leader, chief, emperor (-ceps, “-taker”; see kap- ); b. suffixed form *preis-tano-. PRISTINE, from Latin prïstinus, former, earlier, original.

VII. Extended form *pres- in compound *pres-gwu-, “going before” (*gw-u-, going; see gwä- ). PRESBYTER, PRESTER John, PRIES; PRESBYOPIA, from Greek presbus, old, old man, elder.

VIII. Extended form *proti. PROS-, from Greek pros, against, toward, near, at.

(Pokorny 2. A. per 810.) Other possibly related forms are grouped under per-2 , per-3 , per-4 , and per-5 .

per-2 To lead, pass over. A verbal root belonging to the group of per1 . Derivatives include fjord, welfare, emporium, opportune, important, and sport.

I. Full-grade form *per-.

1. Suffixed form *per-tu-. FIRTH, FJORD, from Old Norse fjördhr, an inlet, estuary, from Germanic *ferthuz, place for crossing over, ford.

2. Suffixed form *per-onä-. PERONEAL, from Greek peronë, pin of a brooch, buckle (< “that which pierces through”).

3. Suffixed form *per-yo-. DIAPIR, from Greek peirein, to pierce.

4. Suffixed form *per-trä-. PETRO-, PETROUS, PIE; PARSLEY, PETRIFY, PETROLEUM, SALTPETER, from Greek peträ, cliff, rock (dissimilated from *perträ-), with possible earlier meaning “bedrock” (< “what one comes through to”).

5. Suffixed form *per-wr,, *per-wn,-, bedrock, “a coming through, what one comes through to,” and derived adjective *per-wn,-to-, rocky. PARVATI, from Sanskrit parvatah., mountain.

II. O-grade form *por-.

1 a. i FAR; WARFARE, WAYFARER, WAYFARING, WELFARE, from Old English faran, to go on a journey, get along; ii FIELDFARE, from Old English feldeware, possibly altered by folk etymology in Old English from an earlier *feldefare, from *fare, a goer, from faran (see (i) above); b. GABERDINE, from Old High German faran, to go, travel; c. FARTLEK, from Old Norse fara, to go, move. a–c all from Germanic *faran, to go.

2. Suffixed form *por-o-, passage, journey. PORE2; APORIA, EMPORIUM, POROMERIC, from Greek poros, journey, passage.

3. Suffixed (causative) form *por-eyo-, to cause to go, lead, conduct. a. FERRY, from Old English ferian, to transport, from Germanic *farjan, to ferry; b. GUAR, from Sanskrit pärayati, pälayati, he leads across, brings to safety.

4. Lengthened-grade form *pör-. a. FERE, from Old English (ge)fëra, “fellow-traveler,” companion (ge-, together, with; see kom ), from Germanic suffixed form *för-ja-; b. Führer, from Old High German fuoren, to lead, from Germanic suffixed (causative) form *för-jan.

5. Possibly suffixed form *por-no-, feather, wing (< “that which carries a bird in flight”). a. FERN, from Old English fearn, fern (having feathery fronds), from Germanic *farnö, feather, leaf; b. PAN2, from Sanskrit parn.am, leaf, feather.

III. Zero-grade form *pr,-.

1. Suffixed form *pr,-tu-, passage. a. FORD, from Old English ford, shallow place where one may cross a river, from Germanic *furdu-; b. PORT1; IMPORTUNE, OPPORTUNE, PASSPORT, from Latin portus, harbor (< “passage”).

2. Suffixed form *pr,-tä-. PORCH, PORT3, PORTAL, PORTCULLIS, PORTER2, PORTICO, PORTIère, PORTULACA, PURSLANE, from Latin porta, gate.


(Pokorny 2. B. per 816.)

per-3 To try, risk (< “to lead over,” “press forward”). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1 .

1. Lengthened grade *për-. FEAR, from Old English faër, danger, sudden calamity, from Germanic *fëraz, danger.

2. Suffixed form *perï-tlo-. PARLOUS, PERIL, from Latin perïclum, perïculum, trial, danger.

3. Suffixed form *per-yo-. EXPERIENCE, EXPERIMENT, EXPERT, from Latin experïrï, to try, learn by trying (ex-, from; see eghs ).

4. Suffixed form *per-ya. PIRAT; EMPIRIC, from Greek peira, trial, attempt.

(Pokorny 2. E. per 818.)

per-4 To strike. A verbal root possibly belonging to the group of per1 . Extended forms *prem-, *pres-. PREGNANT2, PRESS1, PRESSURE, PRIN; APPRESSED, APRès, COMPRESS, DEPRESS, ESPRESSO, EXPRESS, IMPRESS1, IMPRIMATUR, IMPRINT, OPPRESS, REPRESS, REPRIMAND, REPRISAL, REPRISE, SUPPRESS, from Latin premere (past participle pressus), to press.

(Pokorny 3. per- 818.)

per-5 To traffic in, sell (< “to hand over,” “distribute”). A verbal root belonging to the group of per1 . Base of two distinct extended roots.

I. Root form *pret-.

1. INTERPRET, from Latin compound inter-pres (stem inter-pret-), go-between, negotiator (inter-, between; see en ).

2. Suffixed form *pret-yo-. PRAISE, PRECIOUS, PRIC; APPRAISE, APPRECIATE, DEPRECIATE, from Latin pretium, price.

II. Variant root form *per@2-. Suffixed form *p(e)r-n-@-, with o-grade *por(@)-nä-. PORNOGRAPHY, from Greek pornë, prostitute, from pernanai, to sell. (In Pokorny 2. C. per 817.)

perd- To fart.

1. FART, from Old English *feortan, to fart, from Germanic *fertan, *fartön.

2. PARTRIDGE, from Greek perdix, partridge (which makes a sharp whirring sound when suddenly flushed).

(Pokorny perd- 819.) Compare pezd- .

per@-1 To produce, procure. Oldest form *per@2-; possibly related to per@-2 . See also per-5 II. Derivatives include parade, parry, emperor, parachute, sever, and parent.

I. Zero-grade form *pr,@- (becoming *par- in Latin). a. Suffixed form *par-ä-. PARADE, PARE, PARLAY, PARRY, PARUR; APPARATUS, APPAREL, COMPRADOR, DISPARATE, EMPEROR, IMPERATIVE, IMPERATOR, IMPERIAL, PARACHUTE, PARASOL, PREPARE, RAMPART, REPAIR1, SEPARATE, SEVER, SEVERAL, from Latin paräre, to try to get, prepare, equip; b. suffixed form *par-yo-. -para, PARITY2, -parous, PARTURIENT, POSTPARTUM, REPERTORY, VIPER, from Latin parere, parïre, to get, beget, give birth; c. parallel suffixed (participial) form *par-ent-. PARENT, from Latin parëns, parent; d. suffixed form *par-o-, producing: i JUNIPER, from Latin iüniperus, juniper, perhaps from compound *yoini-paros, “producing juniper berries” (*yoini-, juniper berry); ii compound *pau-paros (see pau-); iii Italic compound *wïwo-paros (see gwei- ); e. suffixed form *par-ikä-. PARCAE, from Latin Parcae, the Fates (who assign one's destiny).

II. Suffixed o-grade form por(@)-sï-. HEIFER, from Old English hëahfore, calf, a compound (with obscure first element) of fearr, calf, from Germanic *farzï-.

(Pokorny 2. D. per 818.)

per@-2 To grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return). Oldest form *per@3-. Possibly related to per@-1 . See also per-5 II. Zero-grade form *pr,@- (becoming *par- in Latin). a. Suffixed form *par-ti-. PARCEL, PARCENER, PARSE, PART, PARTICLE, PARTISAN, PARTITA, PART; BIPARTITE, COMPART, IMPART, PARTICIPATE, REPARTEE, from Latin pars (stem part-), a share, part; b. possibly suffixed form *par-tiön-. PORTION, PROPORTION, from Latin portiö, a part (first attested in the phrase prö portiöne, in proportion, according to each part, perhaps assimilated from *prö partiöne); c. perhaps Latin pär, equal: PAIR, PAR, PARITY1, PEER2; COMPARE, IMPARITY, NONPAREIL, PARI-mutuel.

(Pokorny 2. C. per 817.)

perkwu- Oak.

1. Zero-grade form *pr,kw-. FIR, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Icelandic fÿri, fir, from Germanic *furh-jön-.

2. Assimilated form *kwerkwu-. CORK, QUERCETI; QUERCITRON, from Latin quercus, oak.

(Pokorny perku_u-s 822.)

pes- Penis. Suffixed form *pes-ni-. PENCIL, PENICILLIUM, PENIS, from Latin pënis (< *pesnis), penis, tail.

(Pokorny 3. pes- 824.)

pet- Also pet@- (oldest form *pet@1-). To rush, fly. Variant *pte@1-, contracted to *ptë-. Derivatives include feather, compete, perpetual, ptomaine, symptom, and hippopotamus.

1. Suffixed form *pet-rä-. FEATHER, from Old English fether, feather, from Germanic *fethrö, feather.


3. Suffixed form *pet-nä-. PANACHE, PEN1, PENNA, PENNATE, PENNON, PIN, PINNA, PINNACLE, PINNATE, PINNATI-, PINNUL; EMPENNAGE, from Latin penna, pinna, feather, wing.

4. Suffixed form *pet-ro- in compound *aku-petro- (see öku- ).

5. Suffixed form *pet-yo-. PROPITIOUS, from Latin propitius, favorable, gracious, originally a religious term meaning “falling or rushing forward,” hence “eager,” “well-disposed” (said of the gods; prö-, forward; see per1 ).


7. Suffixed zero-grade form *pt-ilo-. COLEOPTILE, from Greek ptilon, soft feathers, down, plume.

8. Suffixed variant form *ptë-no-. STEAROPTENE, from Greek ptënos, winged, flying.

9. Reduplicated form *pi-pt-. PTOMAINE, PTOSI; ASYMPTOTE, PERIPETEIA, PROPTOSIS, SYMPTOM, from Greek piptein, to fall, with verbal adjective ptötos (< *ptö-to-), falling, fallen, and nominal derivatives ptösis (< *ptö-ti-), a fall, and ptöma (< *ptö-mn,), a fall, fallen body, corpse.

10. O-grade form *pot-. HIPPOPOTAMUS, POTAMOLOGY, from Greek potamos “rushing water,” river (-amo-, Greek suffix).

11. Suffixed form *pet-tro-. TALIPOT, from Sanskrit pattram, feather, leaf.

(Pokorny 2. pet- 825.)

pet@- To spread. Oldest form *pet@2-. Derivatives include fathom, patent, and compass.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *pot(@)-mo-. FATHOM, from Old English fæthm, fathom, from Germanic *fathmaz, “length of two arms stretched out.”

2. Suffixed (stative) variant zero-grade form *pat-ë-. PATENT, PATULOUS, from Latin patëre, to be open.

3. Probably variant zero-grade form in remade nasalized form *pat-no-. PACE1, PANDY, PAS, PASEO, PASS, PASSé, PASSI; COMPASS, EXPAND, PASQUEFLOWER, PASSACAGLIA, PASSAGE1, PASSAGE2, PASSPORT, REPAND, SPAWN, from Latin pandere (past participle passus < *pat-to-), to spread out.

4. Suffixed form *pet-alo-. PETAL, from Greek petalon, leaf.

5. Suffixed form *pet-ano-. PAELLA, PAN1, PATEN, PATINA1, PATINA2, from Greek patanë (? < *petanä-), platter, “thing spread out.”

6. PETASOS, from Greek petasos, broad-brimmed hat, from Greek suffixed form *peta-so-.

(Pokorny 1. pet- 824.)

peu@- To purify, cleanse. Oldest form *peu@2-. Suffixed zero-grade form *pü-ro- (< *pu@-ro-). POUR, PURE, PURée, PURGE, PURITA; COMPURGATION, DEPURATE, EXPURGATE, PURBLIND, SPURGE, from Latin pürus, pure, and pürgäre, to purify (< *pür-igäre < *pür-agäre; *ag-, to drive; see ag- ).

(Pokorny 1. peu- 827.)

peuk- Also peug-. To prick (piquer). Oldest forms *peukì-, *peugì-, becoming *peuk-, *peug- in centum languages. Zero-grade form *pug-.

1. Suffixed form *pug-no-. PONIARD, PUGILISM, PUGIL stick, PUGNACIOU; IMPUGN, OPPUGN, REPUGN, from Latin pugil, pugilist, and pugnus, fist, with denominative pugnäre, to fight with the fist.


3. PYGMAEAN, PYGMY, from Greek pugmë, fist.

(Pokorny peukì- 828.)

pezd- To fart.

1. Suffixed form *pezd-i-. FEIST, from Old English fïsting, a breaking wind, and Middle English fisten, to fart, from Germanic *fistiz, a fart.

2. PETARD, from Latin pëdere, to fart.

3. Perhaps Latin pëdis, louse (? < “foul-smelling insect”): PEDICULAR.

(Pokorny pezd- 829, 2. peis- 796.) Compare perd- .

p@ter- Father. Oldest form *p@2ter-.

1. FATHE; FOREFATHER, from Old English fæder, father, from Germanic *fadar.



sanscrit pitr

(Pokorny p@të´(r) 829.)

pläk-1 Also plak-. To be flat. Earliest form *ple@2k-, colored to *pla@2k-, contracted to *pläk-. Extension of pel@-2 . Derivatives include fluke1, flaw1, plead, placenta, and archipelago.

1. FLOE, from Old Norse flö, layer, coating, from Germanic *flöhö.

2. Variant form *pläg-. a. FLUKE1, from Old English flöc, flatfish, from Germanic *flök-; b. FLAKE1, from Middle English flake, flake, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Norwegian flak, flat piece, flake, from Germanic *flakaz; c. FLAKE2, from Old Norse flaki, fleki, hurdle (claie), from Germanic *flak-.

3. Extended form *plakä-. FLAG4, FLAW1, from Old Norse flaga, layer of stone, from Germanic *flagö.

4. Possibly suffixed (stative) form *plak-ë-, to be calm (as of the flat sea). PLACEBO, PLACID, PLEA, PLEAD, PLEASANT, PLEAS; COMPLACENT, from Latin placëre, to please, be agreeable.

5. Root noun *plak-. SUPPLICATE, SUPPLE, from Latin supplex, suppliant (whence denominative supplicäre, to beg humbly, first attested in Archaic Latin as sub vos placö, I entreat you; sub, under; see upo ).

6. Lengthened suffixed form *pläk-ä-. PLACABLE, PLACATE, from Latin pläcäre, to calm (causative of placëre).

7. Nasalized form *pla-n-k-. PLANCHET, PLANK, from Latin plancus, flat, flat-footed.

8. Variant form *plag-. a. Perhaps Latin plaga, net (? < “something extended”): PLAGIAR; b. PLAGAL, PLAGIO-, PLAYA, from Greek plagos, side.

9. Root form *plak-. PLACENTA, PLACOI; LEUKOPLAKIA, PLACODERM, from Greek plax, flat, flat land, surface, plate.

10. Possible variant form *pelag-. PELAGI; ARCHIPELAGO, from Greek pelagos, sea.

(Pokorny 1. plä-k- 831.)

pläk-2 To strike. Oldest form *ple@2k-, colored to *pla@2k-, contracted to *pläk-.

1. Nasalized variant forms *pla-n-k-, *pla-n-g-. a. FLING, from Middle English flingen, to fling, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse flengja, to flog, whip, from Germanic *flang-; b. PLAINT, PLANGEN; COMPLAIN, from Latin plangere, to strike (one's own breast), lament; c. suffixed form *plang-yo-. PLANKTON, from Greek plazein, to drive away, turn aside.

2. Variant form *pläg-. PLAGUE, from Latin pläga, a blow, stroke.

3. Suffixed form *pläk-yo-. PLECTRUM, -plegia, PLEXO; APOPLEXY, CATAPLEXY, PARAPLEGIA, from Greek plëssein, to beat, strike.

(Pokorny 2. pläk- 832.)

plat- To spread. Also plet@- (oldest form *plet@2-). Extension of pel@-2 . Derivatives include flatter1, plant, plateau, platitude, and plaza.

1. Variant form *plad-. a. FLAT1, from Old Norse flatr, flat; b. FLATTER1, from Old French flater, to flatter. Both a and b from Germanic *flataz, flat.

2. Suffixed variant form *plad-yo-. FLAT2, from Old English flet(t), floor, dwelling, from Germanic *flatjam.

3. Basic form *plat-. FLAN, from Late Latin fladö, flat cake, pancake, from Germanic *flathö(n), flat cake.

4. FLOUNDER2, from Anglo-Norman floundre, flounder, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Swedish flundra, flatfish, flounder, from Germanic suffixed nasalized form *flu-n-th-r-jö-.

5. Nasalized form *pla-n-t-. CLAN, PLAN, PLANT, PLANTAIN1, PLANTA; PLANTIGRADE, SUPPLANT, TRANSPLANT, from Latin planta, sole of the foot, and denominative plantäre, to drive in with the sole of the foot, plant, whence planta, a plant.

6. Suffixed zero-grade form *pl,t(@)-u-. PIAZZA, PLACE, PLAICE, PLANE4, PLANE tree, PLATE, PLATEAU, PLATERESQUE, PLATINA, PLATINUM, PLATITUDE, PLATY2, PLATY-, PLAZA, from Greek platus, flat, broad.

(Pokorny plât- 833.)

plek- To plait. Extension of pel-2 . Oldest form *plekì-, becoming *plek- in centum languages. Derivatives include flax, pliant, and perplex.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *plok-so-. FLAX, from Old English fleax, flax, from Germanic *flahsam, flax.

2. Full-grade form *plek-. MULTIPLEX, from Latin -plex, -fold (in compounds such as duplex, twofold; see dwo- ).

3. PLAIT, PLEAT, PLIANT, PLICA, PLICATE, PLIGHT1, PLISSé, PLY1; APPLY, COMPLICATE, COMPLICE, DEPLOY, DISPLAY, EMPLOY, EXPLICATE, EXPLICIT, EXPLOIT, IMPLICATE, IMPLICIT, REPLICATE, REPLY, SPLAY, from Latin plicäre, to fold (also in compounds used as denominatives of words in -plex, genitive -plicis).

4. Suffixed forms *plek-to- and *plek-t-to-. PLEACH, PLEXU; AMPLEXICAUL, AMPLEXUS, COMPLECT, COMPLEX, PERPLEXED, from Latin plectere (past participle plexus), to weave, plait, entwine.

5. PLECOPTERAN, PLECTOGNATH, from Greek plekein, to plait, twine, and plektos, twisted.

(Pokorny plekì- 834.)

pleu- To flow. Derivatives include pulmonary, Pluto, flow, fowl, flutter, and fluster.

I. Basic form *pleu-.

1. PLOVER, PLUVIAL, PLUVIOUS, from Latin pluere, to rain.

2. PLEUSTON, from Greek pleusis, sailing.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *plu-elos. PYELITIS, from Greek dissimilated puelos, trough, basin.

4. Suffixed form *pl(e)u-mon-, “floater,” lung(s). a. PULMONARY, from Latin pulmö (< *plumonës), lung(s); b. PNEUMO-, PNEUMONIA, PNEUMONIC, from Greek pleumön, pneumön (influenced by pneuma, breath; see pneu- ), lung.

5. Suffixed o-grade form *plou-to-. PLUT; PLUTOCRACY, PLUTOGRAPHY, from Greek ploutos, wealth, riches (< “overflowing”).

6. Lengthened o-grade form *plö(u)-. a. i FLOW, from Old English flöwan, to flow; ii perhaps Middle Dutch vluwe, fishnet: FLUE2. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *flöwan, to flow; b. suffixed form *plö-tu-. FLOOD, from Old English flöd, flood, from Germanic *flöduz, flowing water, deluge.

II. Extended form *pleuk-.

1. FLY1, from Old English flëogan, to fly, from Germanic *fleugan, to fly.

2. FLY2, from Old English flëoge, a fly, from Germanic *fleugön-, flying insect, fly.

3. Probably Germanic *fleuhan, to run away. FLEE, from Old English flëon, to flee.

4. FLEY, from Old English flÿgan, flëgan, to put to flight, from Germanic causative *flaugjan.

5. FLèche, FLETCHER, from Old French fleche, arrow, from Germanic suffixed form *fleug-ika.

6. Zero-grade form *pluk-. a. FLEDGE, from Old English *flycge, with feathers (only in unfligge, featherless), from Germanic *flugja-, feather; b. FLIGHT1, FLIGHT2, from Old English flyht, act of flying, and *flyht, act of fleeing, escape, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ti-; c. FOWL, from Old English fugol, bird, from Germanic *fuglaz, bird, dissimilated from possible (but unlikely) suffixed form *flug-laz; d. FLügelhorn, FUGLEMAN, from Middle High German vlügel, wing, from Germanic suffixed form *flug-ilaz.

III. Extended form *pleud-.

1. FLEET1, FLEET2, from Old English flëotan, to float, swim (from Germanic *fleutan), and Old Norse fljötr, fleet, swift (from Germanic *fleutaz).

2. Zero-grade form *plud-. a. i FLOAT, from Old English flotian, to float; ii FLOTSAM, from Old French floter, to float. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic derivative *flotön, to float; b. FLOTILLA, from Old Norse floti, raft, fleet; c. FLUTTER, from Old English floterian, flotorian, to float back and forth (-erian, iterative and frequentative suffix); d. FLIT, from Old Norse flytja, to further, convey, from Germanic *flutjan, to float. a–d all from Germanic *flut-, *flot-.

3. FLUSTER, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Icelandic flaustr, hurry, and flaustra, to bustle, from Germanic *flausta-, contracted from suffixed form *flaut-stä-, probably from *pleud-, o-grade *ploud-.

(Pokorny pleu- 835, pl(e)u-mon- 837.)

pneu- To breathe. Imitative root.

1. SNEEZE (éternuer), from Old English fnëosan, to sneeze, from Germanic *fneu-s-.

2. SNORE, SNORT, from Old English fnora, sneezing, from Germanic *fnu-s-.

3. APNEA, DIPNOAN, DYSPNEA, EUPNEA, HYPERPNEA, HYPOPNEA, POLYPNEA, TACHYPNEA, from Greek pnein, to breathe, with o-grade nouns pnoiä, -pnoia, breathing, and pnoë, breath.

4. Suffixed form *pneu-mn,. PNEUMA, PNEUMATIC, PNEUMATO-, PNEUMO-, from Greek pneuma, breath, wind, spirit.

5. Germanic variant root *fnes-. SNEER (ricaner), from Old English fnaëran, to snort, gnash one's teeth.

(Pokorny pneu- 838.)

pö(i)- To drink. Oldest form *pe@3(i)-, colored to *po@3(i)-.

I. Basic form *pö(i)-, reduced to *pö- (< *po@-).

1. Suffixed form *pö-to-. POTABLE, POTATION, POTATORY, from Latin pötus, drunk; a drink (whence pötäre, to drink).

2. Suffixed form *pö-ti-. POISON, POTION, from Latin pötiö, a drink.

3. Suffixed form *pö-tlo-, drinking vessel. HIBACHI, from Sanskrit pätram, cup, bowl.

4. Suffixed reduplicated zero-grade form *pi-p@-o-, whence *pi-bo-, assimilated to *bi-bo-. BEER, BEVERAGE, BIB, BIBULOU; IMBIBE, IMBRUE, from Latin bibere, to drink.

5. Suffixed zero-grade form *p@-ti-, *po-ti-. SYMPOSIUM, from Greek posis, drink, drinking.

II. Zero-grade form *pï- (< *pi@-).

1. Suffixed form *pï-ro-. PIROG, from Old Church Slavonic pirù, feast.

2. Suffixed (nasal present) form *pï-no-. PINOCYTOSIS, from Greek pïnein, to drink.

(Pokorny 2. pö(i)- 839.)

porko- Young pig. Oldest form *porkìo-, becoming *porko- in centum languages.

1 a. FARROW1, from Old English fearh, little pig; b. AARDVARK, from Middle Dutch diminutive form varken, small pig. Both a and b from Germanic *farhaz.


(Pokorny porkìo-s 841.)

poti- Powerful; lord.

1. PODESTA, POSSESS, POWER, from Latin potis (> *pots > pos-), powerful, able.

2. POSSIBLE, POTEN; IMPOTENT, OMNIPOTENT, PREPOTENT, from Latin compound posse, to be able (contracted from potis, able + esse, to be; see es- ).

3. Form *pot-. a. Compound *ghos-pot- (see ghos-ti- ); b. compound *dems-pot- (see dem- ).

4. BASHAW, PADISHAH, PASHA, from Old Persian pati-, master.

(Pokorny poti-s 842.)

prek- To ask, entreat. Oldest form *prekì-, becoming *prek- in centum languages.

1. Basic form *prek-. PRAY, PRAYER1, PRECARIOU; DEPRECATE, IMPRECATE, PRIE-dieu, from *prex, prayer (attested only in the plural precës), with Latin denominative precärï, to entreat, pray.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *pr,k-sk- becoming *pork-sk-, contracted to *posk- in suffixed form *posk-to-, contracted to *posto-. POSTULAT; EXPOSTULATE, from Latin postuläre, to ask, request.

(Pokorny 4. perkì- 821.)

preus- To freeze, burn.

1. FREEZE, from Old English frëosan, to freeze, from Germanic *freusan, to freeze.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-to-. FROST, from Old English forst, frost, frost, from Germanic *frustaz, frost.

3. Suffixed form *preus-i-. PRURIENT, PRURIGO, PRURITUS, from Latin denominative prürïre, to burn, itch, yearn for, from *preusis, *preuris, act of burning.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *prus-wïnä-. PRUINOSE, from Latin pruïna, hoarfrost.

(Pokorny preus- 846.)

prï- To love. Contracted from *pri@- (becoming *priy- before vowels). Derivatives include filibuster, friend, and Friday.

1. Suffixed form *priy-o-. a. FREE, from Old English frëo, free, and frëon, freogan, to love, set free; b. FILIBUSTER, FREEBOOTER, from Dutch vrij, free. Both a and b from Germanic *frijaz, beloved, belonging to the loved ones, not in bondage, free, and *frijön, to love.

2. Suffixed (participial) form *priy-ont-, loving. FRIEND, from Old English frïond, frëond, friend, from Germanic *frijand-, lover, friend.

3. Suffixed shortened form *pri-tu-. a. SIEGFRIED, from Old High German fridu, peace; b. AFFRAY, AFRAID, from Old French esfreer, to disturb, from Vulgar Latin *exfredäre, to break the peace, from ex-, out, away (see eghs ) + *fridäre, to make peace, from Germanic *frithu-, peace; c. Germanic *frij-, peace, safety, in compound *berg-frij- (see bhergh-2 ). a–c all from Germanic *frithuz, peace.

4. Suffixed feminine form *priy-ä-, beloved. a. FRIGG, from Old Norse Frigg, goddess of the heavens, wife of Odin; b. FRIDAY, from Old English Frïgedæg, Friday, from Germanic compound *frije-dagaz, “day of Frigg” (translation of Latin Veneris diës, “Venus's day”). Both a and b from Germanic *frijjö, beloved, wife.

(Pokorny präi- 844.)

pû- To rot, decay. Probably contracted from *pu@- (becoming *puw- before vowels). Derivatives include foul, fuzzy, potpourri, and pus.

1. Suffixed form *pü-lo-. a. FOUL, from Old English fül, unclean, rotten; b. FULMAR, from Old Norse füll, foul; c. FILTH, from Old English fÿlth, foulness, from Germanic abstract noun *fülithö; d. FILE3, FOIL1; DEFILE1, from Old English fÿlan, to sully, from Germanic denominative *füljan, to soil, dirty. a–d all from Germanic *fülaz, rotten, filthy.

2. Extended form *pug-. FOG2, from Middle English fog, fogge, aftermath grass, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Icelandic füki, rotten sea grass, and Norwegian fogg, rank grass, from Germanic *fuk-.

3. Extended variant form *pous-. FUZZY, from Low German fussig, spongy, from Germanic *fausa-.

4. Suffixed form *pu-tri-. PUTRESCENT, PUTRI; OLLA podrida, POTPOURRI, PUTREFY, from Latin puter (stem putri-), rotten.

5. Suffixed form *puw-os-. a. PURULENT, PU; SUPPURATE, from Latin püs, pus; b. PYO-, from Greek puon, puos, pus.

6. EMPYEMA, from Greek compound empuein, to suppurate (en-, in; see en ).

(Pokorny 2. pû- 848.)

(re- Also red-. Backward. Latin combining form conceivably from Indo-European *wret-, metathetical variant of *wert-, to turn (< “turned back”), an extended form of wer-2 .

1. RE-, from Latin re-, red-, backward, again.

2. Suffixed form *re(d)-tro-. RETRAL, RETRO; ARREARS, REAR guard, REARWARD2, REREDOS, from Latin retrö, backward, back, behind.

3. Suffixed form *re-ko- in Latin reciprocus (see per1 ). )

rë- To bestow (accorder), endow (doter). Contracted from *re@1-. Suffixed form *re@-i-, goods, wealth, property. RE2, REAL1, REBU; REIFY, REPUBLIC, from Latin rës, thing.

(Pokorny 4. rei- 860.)

rëd- To scrape, scratch, gnaw. Oldest form *re@1d-, contracted to *rëd-.

1. O-grade form *röd-. a. RODEN; CORRODE, ERODE, from Latin rödere, to gnaw; b. suffixed (instrumental) form *röd-tro-. ROSTRUM, from Latin röstrum, beak, ship's bow.

2. Possibly extended zero-grade form *r@d-d-, becoming *razd-, whence *räd- in Latin. a. RADULA, RAPE3, RAPPEE, RASCAL, RASH2, RASORIAL, RATINé, RATTEEN, RAZE, RAZO; ABRADE, CORRADE, ERASE, from Latin rädere, to scrape; b. suffixed (instrumental) form *räd-tro-. RACLETTE, RASTER, from Latin rästrum, rake.

3. Zero-grade form *r@d-. RAT, from Old English ræt, rat, from Germanic *rattön-.

(Pokorny 2. rëd- 854.)

reg- To move in a straight line, with derivatives meaning “to direct in a straight line, lead, rule.” Oldest form *@3regì-, becoming *@3reg- in centum languages. Derivatives include right, realm, anorexia, rich, rule, interrogate, and reckless.

I. Basic form *reg-.

1. Suffixed form *reg-to-. RIGHT, from Old English riht, right, just, correct, straight, from Germanic *rehtaz.


3. ANORECTIC, ANOREXIA, from Greek oregein, to stretch out, reach out for (with o- from oldest root form *@3regì-).

II. Lengthened-grade form *rëg-, Indo-European word for a tribal king.

1 a. BISHOPRIC, ELDRITCH, from Old English rïce, realm; b. RIKSMål, from Old Norse rïki, realm; c. REIC; REICHSMARK, from Old High German rïchi, realm; d. RICH, from Old English rïce, strong, powerful, and Old French riche, wealthy. a–d all from Germanic *rïkja-, from Celtic suffixed form *rïg-yo-.

2. REAL2, REGAL, REGULUS, REIGN, RIAL1, RIYAL, ROYA; REGICIDE, REGIUS professor, VICEREINE, VICEROY, from Latin rëx, king (royal and priestly title).

3. Suffixed form *rëg-en-. RAJ, RAJAH, RANI, RYE2; MAHARAJAH, MAHARANI, from Sanskrit räjä, räjan-, king, rajah (feminine räjñï, queen, rani), and räjati, he rules.

III. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *rëg-olä-. RAIL1, REGLET, REGULAR, REGULATE, RULE, from Latin rëgula, straight piece of wood, rod.

IV. O-grade form *rog-.

1. RAKE1, from Old English raca, racu, rake (implement with straight pieces of wood), from Germanic *rakö.

2. RACK1, from Middle Dutch rec, framework, from Germanic *rak-.

3. Possibly Germanic *rankaz (with nasal infix). RANK2, from Old English ranc, straight, strong, hence haughty, overbearing.

4. RECKON, from Old English gerecenian, to arrange in order, recount (ge-, collective prefix; see kom ), from Germanic *rakinaz, ready, straightforward.

5. Suffixed form *rog-ä-. ROGATION, ROGATOR; ABROGATE, ARROGATE, CORVée, DEROGATE, INTERROGATE, PREROGATIVE, PROROGUE, SUBROGATE, SUPEREROGATE, from Latin rogäre, to ask (< “stretch out the hand”).

6. Suffixed form *rog-o-. ERGO, from Latin ergö, therefore, in consequence of, perhaps contracted from a Latin phrase *ë rogö, “from the direction of” (ë < ex, out of; see eghs ), from a possible Latin noun *rogus, “extension, direction.”

V. Lengthened o-grade form *rög-.

1. RECK, from Old English rec(c)an, to pay attention to, take care (formally influenced by Old English reccan, to extend, stretch out, from Germanic *rakjan), from Germanic *rökjan.

2. RECKLESS, from Old English rëcelëas, careless (-lëas, lacking; see leu- ), from Germanic rökja-.

VI. Suffixed zero-grade form *r,g-yo-. RAITA, from Sanskrit r.jyati, he stretches out.

(Pokorny 1. regì- 854.)

rei- To flow, run.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *ri-nu-. a. RUN, RUNNEL, from Old English rinnan, to run, and Old Norse rinna, to run (from Germanic *rinnan, to run, from *ri-nw-an), and from Old English causative ærnan, eornan, to run (from secondary Germanic causative *rannjan); b. EMBER day, from Old English ryne, a running, from secondary Germanic derivative *runiz; c. RENNET, from Old English *rynet, from secondary Germanic derivative *runita-.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *ri-l-. RILL, from Dutch ril or Low German rille, running stream, from Germanic *ril-.

3. Suffixed form *rei-wo-. RIVAL, RIVULE; DERIVE, from Latin rïvus, stream.

(Pokorny 3. er- 326.)

reidh- To ride. Derivatives include raid, road, and array.

I. Basic form *reidh-.

1. RIDE, from Old English rïdan, to ride, from Germanic *rïdan.

2. PALFREY, from Latin verëdus, post horse, from Celtic *wo-rëd- (*wo-, under; see upo ).

II. O-grade form *roidh-.

1 a. RAID, ROAD, from Old English räd, a riding, road, from Germanic *raid-; b. RADDLE1, from Middle High German reidel, rod between upright stakes (< “wooden horse”), possibly from Germanic *raid- (see a ).

2. Probably Germanic *raid-ja-. READ; ALREADY, from Old English ræde, geræde, ready (< “prepared for a journey”).

3. Probably Germanic *raidjan. RAIMEN; ARRAY, CURRY1, from Vulgar Latin *-rëdäre, to arrange.

(Pokorny reidh- 861.)

reig- To reach, stretch out. Oldest form *reigì-, becoming *reig- in centum languages.

1. O-grade form *roig-. REACH, from Old English raëcan, to stretch out, reach, from Germanic *raikjan.

2. Possibly suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *rig-ë-. RIGID, RIGOR, from Latin rigëre, to be stiff (? < “be stretched out”).

(Pokorny (reigì-) 862.)

rep- To snatch. Suffixed zero-grade form *rap-yo-. RAPACIOUS, RAPE1, RAPID, RAPINE, RAPT, RAVAGE, RAVEN2, RAVIN, RAVIS; EREPSIN, SUBREPTION, SURREPTITIOUS, from Latin rapere, to seize.

(Pokorny rep- 865.)

ret- To run, roll.

1. Prefixed Celtic form *to-wo-ret-, “a running up to” (to-, to; wo, under, up, up from under; see upo ). TORY, from Old Irish töir, pursuit.


3. Suffixed (participial) form *ret-ondo-. ROTUND, ROTUNDA, ROUND1, from Latin rotundus, round, probably from *retundus, “rolling.”

(Pokorny ret(h)- 866.)

reudh- Red, ruddy. Oldest form *@1reudh-. Derivatives include red, robust, corroborate, ruby, and rubric.

I. O-grade form *roudh-.

1 a. RED, from Old English rëad, red; b. RORQUAL, from Old Norse raudhr, red. Both a and b from Germanic *raudaz.

2. ROWAN, from a source akin to Old Norse reynir, mountain ash, rowan (from its red berries), from Germanic *raudnia-.

3. RUFESCENT, RUFOUS, from Latin rüfus (of dialectal Italic origin), reddish.

4. RUBIGINOUS, from Latin röbus, red.

5. ROBLE, ROBORANT, ROBUS; CORROBORATE, RAMBUNCTIOUS, from Latin röbur, röbus, red oak, hardness, and röbustus, strong.

II. Zero-grade form *rudh-.

1. Suffixed form *rudh-ä-. a. RUDDLE, from Old English rudu, red color; b. RUDDOCK, from Old English rudduc, robin; c. RUDDY, from Old English rudig, ruddy. a–c all from Germanic *rudö.

2. Suffixed form *rudh-sto-. RUST, from Old English rüst (also rust?), rust, from Germanic *rust-.

3. ROUGE, RUBEOLA, RUB; RUBEFACIENT, from Latin rubeus, red.

4. RUBICUND, from Latin rubicundus, red, ruddy.

5. RUBIDIUM, from Latin rübidus, red.

6. Suffixed (stative) form *rudh-ë-. RUBESCENT, from Latin rubëre, to be red.

7. Suffixed form *rudh-ro-. a. RUBELLA, RUBRI; BILIRUBIN, from Latin ruber, red; b. RUTILANT, RUTILE, from Latin rutilus, reddish; c. ERYTHEMA, ERYTHRO-, from Greek eruthros, red (with prothetic vowel from oldest zero-grade form *@rudh-); d. ERYSIPELAS, from possibly remade Greek erusi-, red, reddening.

8. Suffixed form *rudh-to-. RISSOLE, ROUX, RUSSET, from Latin russus, red.

(Pokorny reudh- 872.)

reu@- To open; space.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *rü-mo- (< *ru@-mo-). a. ROOM, from Old English rüm, space; b. LEBENSRAUM, from Old High German rüm, space; c. RUMMAGE, from Old Provençal run, ship's hold, space. a–c all from Germanic *rümaz; d. REAM2, from Old English rÿman, to widen, open up, from Germanic denominative *rümjan.

2. Suffixed form *reu(@)-es-. RURAL, RUSTIC, from Latin rüs, “open land,” the country.

(Pokorny reu_@- 874.)

reug- To vomit, belch; smoke, cloud.

1. REEK, from Old English rëocan, to smoke, reek, and rëcan, to fumigate, from Germanic *reukan.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *rug-to-. ERUCT, from Latin rüctäre, to belch. (In Pokorny reu-b- 871.)

reup- Also reub-. To snatch. Derivatives include bereave, rob, usurp, and bankrupt.

I. Basic form *reub-. RIP1, from Flemish rippen, to rip, from Germanic *rupjan.

II. O-grade form *roup-.

1 a. REAVE1, from Old English rëafian, to plunder; b. BEREAVE, from Old English berëafian, to take away (be-, bi-, intensive prefix; see ambhi ); c. ROVER2, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German roven, to rob. a–c all from Germanic *(bi-)raubön. 2a. ROB, from Old French rober, to rob; b. RUBATO, from Italian rubare, to rob. Both a and b from a Romance borrowing from Germanic *raubön, to rob.

3. ROB; GARDEROBE, from Old French robe, robe (< “clothes taken as booty”), from Germanic *raubö, booty.

4. Suffixed form *roup-tro-. LOOT, from Sanskrit loptram, booty.

5. RUBLE, from Old Russian rubiti, to chop, hew, from Slavic *rubje/a-.

III. Zero-grade form *rup-.

1. USURP, from Latin üsürpäre (< *üsu-rup-; üsus, use, usage, from ütï, to use), originally “to interrupt the orderly acquisition of something by the act of using,” whence to take into use, usurp.

2. Nasalized zero-grade form *ru-m-p-. ROUT1, RUPTUR; ABRUPT, BANKRUPT, CORRUPT, DISRUPT, ERUPT, INTERRUPT, IRRUPT, RUPICOLOUS, from Latin rumpere, to break. (In Pokorny 2. reu- 868.)

r,tko- Bear. Oldest form *@2r,tkìo-, becoming *@r,tko- in centum languages.

1. URSINE, from Latin ursus, bear (< *orcsos).

2. ARCTIC, ARCTURUS, from Greek arktos, bear.

(Pokorny r'kìo-s 875.)

sä- To satisfy. Oldest form *se@2-, colored to *sa@2-, contracted to *sä-.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *s@-to-. a. SAD, from Old English sæd, sated, weary, from Germanic *sadaz, sated; b. SATE1, from Old English sadian, to sate, from derivative Germanic verb *sadön, to satisfy, sate.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *s@-ti-. SATIATE, SATIET; ASSAI2, ASSET, SATISFY, from Latin satis, enough, sufficient.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *s@-tu-ro-. SATIRE, SATURATE, from Latin satur, full (of food), sated.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *s@-d-ro-. HADRON, from Greek hadros, thick.

(Pokorny sä- 876.)

säg- To seek out. Oldest form *se@2g-, colored to *sa@2g-, contracted to *säg-. Derivatives include seek, ransack, and hegemony.

1. Suffixed form *säg-yo-. SEEK, from Old English saëcan, sëcan, to seek, from Germanic *sökjan.

2. Suffixed form *säg-ni-. SOKE, from Old English söcn, attack, inquiry, right of local jurisdiction, from Germanic *sökniz.

3. Zero-grade form *s@g-. a. SAKE1, from Old English sacu, lawsuit, case, from Germanic derivative noun *sakö, “a seeking,” accusation, strife; b. i FORSAKE, from Old English forsacan, to renounce, refuse (for-, prefix denoting exclusion or rejection; see per1 ); ii RAMSHACKLE, RANSACK, from Old Norse *saka, to seek. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sakan, to seek, accuse, quarrel. Both a and b from Germanic *sak-.

4. Independent suffixed form *säg-yo-. PRESAGE, from Latin sägïre, to perceive, “seek to know.”

5. Zero-grade form *s@g-. SAGACIOUS, from Latin sagäx, of keen perception.

6. Suffixed form *säg-eyo-. EXEGESIS, HEGEMONY, from Greek hëgeisthai, to lead (< “to track down”).

(Pokorny säg- 876.)

sak- To sanctify.

1. Suffixed form *sak-ro-. a. SACRED, SACRISTAN, SEXTO; CONSECRATE, EXECRATE, from Latin sacer, holy, sacred, dedicated; b. compound *sakro-dhöt-, “performer of sacred rites” (*-dhöt-, doer; see dhë- ). SACERDOTAL, from Latin sacerdös, priest.

2. Nasalized form *sa-n-k-. SAINT, SANCTU; CORPOSANT, SACROSANCT, SANCTIFY, from Latin sancïre (past participle sänctus), to make sacred, consecrate.

sanscrit : lavana

(Pokorny sak- 878.)

sal- Salt.

1. Extended form *sald-. a. Suffixed form *sald-o-. SALT, from Old English sealt, salt, from Germanic *saltam; b. i SOUSE1, from Old French sous, pickled meat; ii SILT, from Middle English cylte, fine sand, from a source probably akin to Danish and Norwegian sylt, salt marsh. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic zero-grade suffixed extended form *sult-jö; c. SALSA, SAUCE, SAUSAGE, from Latin sallere (past participle salsus < *sald-to-), to salt.

2. SAL, SALAD, SALAMI, SALARY, SALI-, SALIN; SALMAGUNDI, SALTCELLAR, SALTPETER, from Latin säl (genitive salis), salt.

3. HALO-, from Greek hals (stem hal-), salt, sea.

(Pokorny 1. sal- 878.)

säwel- The sun. Oldest form *se@2wel-, colored to *sa@2wel-, contracted to *säwel-, with zero-grade *s(u)wel-. The element *-el- was originally suffixal, and alternated with *-en-, yielding the variant zero-grades *s(u)wen- and (reduced) *sun-. Derivatives include Sunday, south, solar, and helium.

1. Variant forms *swen-, *sun-. a. i SUN, from Old English sunne, sun; ii SUNDEW, from Middle Dutch sonne, sun. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sunnön-; b. SUNDAY, from Old English sunnandæg, Sunday, from Germanic compound *sunnön-dagaz, “day of the sun” (translation of Latin diës sölis); c. SOUTH, SOUTHERN, from Old English süth, south, and sütherne, southern, from Germanic derivative *sunthaz, “sun-side,” south.


3. Suffixed form *säwel-yo-. HELIACAL, HELIO-, HELIU; ANTHELION, APHELION, ISOHEL, PARHELION, PERIHELION, from Greek hëlios, sun.

(Pokorny säwel- 881.)

së- To sow. Contracted from *se@1-.

1. SOW1, from Old English säwan, to sow, from Germanic *sëan.

2. Suffixed form *së-ti-, sowing. a. SEED, from Old English saëd, seed; b. COLZA, from Middle Dutch saet and Middle Low German sät, seed. Both a and b from Germanic *sëdiz, seed.

3. Reduplicated zero-grade form *si-s(@)-. SEASON, from Latin serere, to sow, satiö (< *s@-tiö), sowing.

4. Suffixed form *së-men-, seed. SEMé, SEMEN, SEMINAR; DISSEMINATE, INSEMINATE, SINSEMILLA, from Latin sëmen, seed. (In Pokorny 2. së(i)- 889.)

sed- To sit. Derivatives include sit, soot, séance, siege, obsess, subside, soil1, and chair.

I. Basic form *sed-.

1. Suffixed form *sed-yo-. a. SIT, from Old English sittan, to sit; b. SITZ bath, SITZMARK, from Old High German sizzen, to sit. Both a and b from Germanic *sitjan.

2. Suffixed form *sed-lo-, seat. SETTLE, from Old English setl, seat, from Germanic *setlaz.


4. Suffixed form *sed-rä-. -hedro; CATHEDRA, CATHEDRAL, CHAIR, EPHEDRINE, EXEDRA, SANHEDRIN, TETRAHEDRON, from Greek hedrä, seat, chair, face of a geometric solid.

5. Prefixed and suffixed form *pi-sed-yo-, to sit upon (*pi, on; see epi ). PIEZO; ISOPIESTIC, from Greek piezein, to press tight.

6. Basic form *sed-. a. EDAPHIC, from Greek edaphos, ground, foundation (with Greek suffix -aphos); b. UPANISHAD, from Sanskrit upanis.ad, Upanishad, from -sad, sitting; c. TANIST, from Old Irish tänaise, designated successor, from Celtic *tänihessio-, “one who is waited for,” from *to-ad-ni-sed-tio, from *to-ad-ni-sed-, to wait for (*ad-, to; see ad- ).

7. Suffixed form *sed-o-, sitting. EISTEDDFOD, from Welsh eistedd, sitting, from Celtic *eks-dï-sedo- (*eks-, out, and *dï-, out, from; see eghs and de- ).

II. O-grade form *sod-.

1. Perhaps suffixed form *sod-dhlo-. SADDLE, from Old English sadol, saddle, from Germanic *sadulaz, seat, saddle.

2. Suffixed (causative) form *sod-eyo-. a. SET1, from Old English settan, to place; b. BESET, from Old English besettan, to set near; c. ERSATZ, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from sezzan, to set. a–c all from Germanic *(bi-)satjan, to cause to sit, set.

3. Suffixed form *sod-yo-. SOIL1, from Latin solium, throne, seat.

III. Zero-grade form *-sd- (in compounds), assimilated to *-zd-.

1. Reduplicated form *si-sd- becoming *si-zd-. a. SUBSIDE, from Latin sïdere, to sit down, settle; b. SYNIZESIS, from Greek hizein, to sit down, settle down.

2. Compound suffixed form *ni-zd-o-, nest, literally “(bird's place of) sitting down” (*ni-, down). a. NEST, from Old English nest, from Germanic *nistaz; b. NICHE, NICK, NIDE, NIDU; EYAS, NIDICOLOUS, NIDIFUGOUS, NIDIFY, from Latin nïdus. nest.

3. Compound suffixed form *kuzdho-zd- (see (s)keu- ).

IV. Lengthened-grade form *sëd-.

1. SEE2, from Latin sëdës, seat, residence.

2. Suffixed form *sëd-i-, settler. COSSET, possibly from Old English -saëta, -saëte, inhabitant(s), from Germanic *sëtön-, *sëti-.

3. Suffixed form *sëd-yo-. SEAT, from Old Norse sæti, seat, from Germanic *(ge)sëtjam, seat (*ge-, *ga-, collective prefix; see kom ).

4. Suffixed form *sëd-ä-. SEDATE1, from Latin sëdäre, to settle, calm down.

5. Suffixed form *sëd-es-, seat. BANSHEE, from Old Irish síd, fairy mound.

V. Lengthened o-grade form *söd-. SOOT, from Old English söt, soot (< “that which settles”), from Germanic *sötam, from suffixed form *söd-o-.

(Pokorny sed- 884.)

segh- To hold. Oldest form *segìh-, becoming *segh- in centum languages. Derivatives include hectic, eunuch, scheme, and scholar.

1. Suffixed form *segh-es-. SIEGFRIED, from Old High German sigu, sigo, victory, from Germanic *sigiz-, victory (< “a holding or conquest in battle”).

2. HECTI; CACHEXIA, CATHEXIS, ENTELECHY, EUNUCH, OPHIUCHUS, from Greek ekhein, to hold, possess, be in a certain condition, and hexis, habit, condition.

3. Possible suffixed (abstract noun) form *segh-wër, toughness, steadfastness, with derivative *segh-wër-o-, tough, stern. SEVER; ASSEVERATE, PERSEVERE, from Latin sevërus, stern; b. STHENI; ASTHENIA, CALISTHENICS, HYPERSTHENE, HYPOSTHENIA, THROMBOSTHENIN, from Greek sthenos, physical strength, from a possible related abstract noun form *sgh-wen-es- (with zero-grade of the root).

4. O-grade form *sogh-. EPOCH, from Greek epokhë, “a holding back,” pause, cessation, position in time (epi-, on, at; see epi ).

5. Zero-grade form *sgh-. a. SCHEME, from Greek skhëma, “a holding,” form, figure; b. SCHOLAR, SCHOLASTIC, SCHOLIUM, SCHOOL1, from Greek skholë, “a holding back,” stop, rest, leisure, employment of leisure in disputation, school.

6. Reduplicated form *si-sgh-. ISCHEMIA, from Greek iskhein, to keep back.

(Pokorny segìh- 888.)

sek- To cut. Derivatives include scythe, Saxon, skin, insect, and sickle.

1. SCYTHE, from Old English sïthe, sigthe, sickle, from Germanic *segithö, sickle.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *sok-ä-. SAW1; HACKSAW, from Old English sagu, sage, saw, from Germanic *sagö, a cutting tool, saw.

3. Suffixed o-grade form *sok-yo-. SEDGE, from Old English secg, sedge, from Germanic *sagjaz, “sword,” plant with a cutting edge.

4. Suffixed o-grade form *sok-so-. a. ZAX, from Old English seax, knife, from Germanic *sahsam, knife, sword; b. SAXON, from Late Latin Saxö (plural Saxonës), a Saxon, from West Germanic tribal name *Saxon-, Saxon, traditionally (but doubtfully) regarded as from Germanic *sahsam (as if “warrior with knives”).

5. Extended root *skend-, to peel off, flay. SKIN, from Old Norse skinn, skin, from Germanic *skinth-.

6. Basic form *sek-. a. SECANT, -sect, SECTILE, SECTION, SECTOR, SEGMEN; DISSECT, INSECT, INTERSECT, RESECT, TRANSECT, from Latin secäre, to cut; b. SEECATCH, from Russian sech', to cut.

7. Lengthened-grade form *sëk-. SICKLE, from Latin sëcula, sickle.

8. Possible suffixed variant form *sak-so-. SASSAFRAS, SAXATIL; SAXICOLOUS, SAXIFRAGE, from Latin saxum, stone (< “broken-off piece”?).

(Pokorny 2. sêk- 895, sken-(d-) 929.) See also extended roots skei- , sker-1 .

sekw-1 To follow. Derivatives include sequel, execute, pursue, and society.


2. SEQUESTER, SEQUESTRUM, from Latin sequester, “follower,” mediator, depositary.

3. Suffixed (participial) form *sekw-ondo-. SECOND2, SECONDO, SECUND, SECUNDINES, from Latin secundus, following, coming next, second.

4. Suffixed form *sekw-os, following. EXTRINSIC, INTRINSIC, from Latin secus, along, alongside of.

5. Suffixed form *sekw-no-. SCARLET, SCARLATINA, SEAL1, SEGNO, SIGIL, SIG; ASSIGN, CONSIGN, DESIGNATE, INSIGNIA, RESIGN, from Latin signum, identifying mark, sign (< “standard that one follows”).

6. Suffixed o-grade form *sokw-yo-. SOCIABLE, SOCIAL, SOCIETY, SOCIO; ASSOCIATE, CONSOCIATE, DISSOCIATE, from Latin socius, ally, companion (< “follower”).

(Pokorny 1. seku_- 896.)

sekw-2 To perceive, see.

1. SEE1, from Old English sëon, to see, from Germanic *sehwan, to see.

2. SIGHT, from Old English sihth, gesiht, vision, spectacle, from Germanic abstract noun *sih-tiz.

(Pokorny 2. seku_- 897.)

sekw-3 To say, utter.

1. O-grade form *sokw-. a. Suffixed form *sokw-yo-. SA; GAINSAY, from Old English secgan, to say, from Germanic *sagjan; b. suffixed form *sokw-ä-. i SAW2, from Old English sagu, a saying, speech; ii SAGA, from Old Norse saga, a saying, narrative. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *sagö, a saying.

2. Perhaps suffixed zero-grade form *skw-e-tlo-, narration. a. SKALD, from Old Norse skäld, poet, “satirist”; b. SCOLD, from Middle English scolde, an abusive person, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skäld (see above). Both a and b from North Germanic *skathla. (In Pokorny 2. seku_- 897.)

sel- To jump.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *sal-yo-. a. SALACIOUS, SALIENT, SALLY, SAUTé ASSAIL, ASSAULT, DESULTORY, DISSILIENT, EXULT, INSULT, RESILE, RESULT, SOMERSAULT, from Latin salïre, to leap; b. HALTER2, from Greek hallesthai, to leap, jump.

2. Probably Latin salmö (borrowed from Gaulish), salmon (< “the leaping fish”): SALMON.

(Pokorny 4. sel- 899.)

sem-1 One; also adverbially “as one,” together with. Derivatives include simultaneous, hyphen, acolyte, and simple.

I. Full-grade form *sem-.

1 a. HENDECASYLLABIC, HENDIADYS, HENOTHEISM, HYPHEN, from Greek heis (< nominative singular masculine *hen-s < *hem-s), one; b. Greek he- in hekaton, one hundred (? dissimilated from *hem-katon; see dekm, ). Both a and b from Greek *hem-.

2. Suffixed form *sem-el-. SIMULTANEOU; ASSEMBLE, ENSEMBLE, from Latin simul, at the same time.

3. Suffixed form *sem-golo-. SINGLE, from Latin singulus, alone, single.

4. Compound *sem-per- (*per, during, for; see per1 ). SEMPR; SEMPITERNAL, from Latin semper, always, ever (< “once for all”).

II. O-grade form *som-.


2. Suffixed form *som-o-. a. SAME, from Old Norse samr, same, from Germanic *samaz, same; b. HOMEO-, HOMO; ANOMALOUS, from Greek homos, same; c. HOMILY, from Greek homïlos, crowd.

3. Suffixed form *som-alo-. HOMOLOGRAPHIC, from Greek homalos, like, even, level.

III. Lengthened o-grade form *söm-.

1. Suffixed form *söm-i-. SEEM, SEEMLY, from Old Norse soëmr, fitting, agreeable (< “making one,” “reconciling”), from Germanic *sömiz.

2. Suffixed lengthened o-grade form *söm-o-. SAMIZDAT, SAMOVAR, from Russian sam(o)-, self.

IV. Zero-grade form *sm,-.

1. ACOLYTE, ANACOLUTHON, from Greek compound akolouthos, accompanying (-kolouthos, from o-grade of keleuthos, way, path), from ha-, a-, together.

2. Compound form *sm,-plo- (*-plo-, -fold; see pel-2 ). a. SIMPLE, from Latin simplus, simple; b. HAPLOID, from Greek haploos, haplous, single, simple.

3. Suffixed form *sm,m-o-. a. SOME, from Old English sum, one, a certain one; b. -some1, from Old English -sum, -like. Both a and b from Germanic *sumaz.

4. Suffixed form *sm,m-alo-. SIMILA; ASSIMILATE, RESEMBLE, from Latin similis, of the same kind, like.

5. Compound *sm,-këro-, of one growing (see ker-2 ).

6. Suffixed form *sm,-tero-. HETERO-, from Greek heteros (earlier hateros), one of two, other.

7. Compound *sm,-plek-, “one-fold,” simple (*-plek-, -fold; see plek- ). SEMPLICE, SIMPLEX, SIMPLICITY, from Latin simplex, simple.

8. Extended form *sm,ma. HAMADRYAD, from Greek hama, together with, at the same time.

(Pokorny 2. sem- 902.)

sem-2 Summer. Also sem@- (oldest form *sem@2-). Suffixed zero-grade form *sm,@-aro-. SUMMER1, from Old English sumor, summer, from Germanic *sumaraz.

(Pokorny 3. sem- 905.)

sëmi- Half-, as first member of a compound.

1. SAND-blind, from Old English säm-, half, from Germanic *sëmi-.

2. SEMI-, from Latin sëmi-, half.

3. SESQUI-, SESTERCE, from Latin sëmis, half.

4. HEMI-, from Greek hëmi-, half.

(Pokorny sëmi- 905.)

sen- Old.


2. SHANACHIE, from Old Irish sen, old.

(Pokorny sen(o)- 907.)

sengwh- To sing, make an incantation.

1 a. SING, from Old English singan, to sing; b. MEISTERSINGER, MINNESINGER, SINGSPIEL, from Old High German singan, to sing. Both a and b from Germanic *singan.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *songwh-o-, singing, song. SONG, from Old English sang, song, song, from Germanic *sangwaz.

(Pokorny sengu_h- 906.)

sent- To head for, go.

1. WIDDERSHINS, from Old High German sin(d), direction, from Germanic form *sinthaz.

2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *sont-eyo-. SEND1, from Old English sendan, to send, from Germanic *sandjan, to cause to go.

3. Suffixed o-grade form *sont-o-. GODSEND, from Old English sand, message, messenger, from Germanic *sandaz, that which is sent.

4. Perhaps suffixed form *sent-yo-. SCENT, SENSE, SENSILLIUM, SENTENCE, SENTIENT, SENTIMENT, SENTINE; ASSENT, CONSENT, DISSENT, PRESENTIMENT, RESENT, from Latin sentïre, to feel (< “to go mentally”).

(Pokorny sent- 908.)

sep- To taste, perceive. Suffixed zero-grade form *sap-yo-. SAGE1, SAPID, SAPIENT, SAPOR, SAVANT, SAVOR, SAVV; INSIPID, from Latin sapere, to taste, have taste, be wise.

(Pokorny sap- 880.)

septm, Seven.

1. SEVE; SEVENTEEN, SEVENTY, from Old English seofon, seven, with derivatives (hund)seofontig, seventy, and seofontïne, seventeen (-tïne, ten; see dekm, ), from Germanic *sebum.


3. HEBDOMAD, HEPTA-, HEPTAD, from Greek hepta, seven.

(Pokorny septm, 909.)

ser-1 To protect.

1. Extended form *serw-. CONSERVE, OBSERVE, PRESERVE, RESERVE, RESERVOIR, from Latin serväre, to keep, preserve.

2. Perhaps suffixed lengthened-grade form *sër-ös-. HERO, from Greek hërös, “protector,” hero.

(Pokorny 2. ser- 910.)

ser-2 To line up.

1. SERIES, SERTULARIA; ASSERT, DESERT3, DISSERTATE, EXERT, EXSERT, INSERT, from Latin serere, to arrange, attach, join (in speech), discuss.

2. Suffixed form *ser-mon-. SERMON, from Latin sermö (stem sermön-), speech, discourse.

3. Perhaps suffixed form *ser-ä-. SEAR2, SERRIED, from Latin sera, a lock, bolt, bar (? < “that which aligns”).

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *sr,-ti-. SORCERER, SOR; ASSORT, CONSORT, ENSORCEL, SORTILEGE, from Latin sors (stem sort-), lot, fortune (perhaps from the lining up of lots before drawing).

(Pokorny 4. ser- 911.)

seu@-1 To give birth. Suffixed zero-grade form in derivative noun *su(@)-nu-, son. SON, from Old English sunu, son, from Germanic *sunuz.

(Pokorny 2. seu- 913.) See also sü- .

seu@-2 To take liquid. Derivatives include soup, soak, and succulent.

I. Suffixed zero-grade form *su@-yo-, contracted to *sü-yo-. HYETA; ISOHYET, from Greek hüetos, rain, from hüein, to rain.

II. Possible extended zero-grade form *süb-.

1 a. SUP1, from Old English süpan, süpian, to drink, sip; b. SOUP, SUP2, from Old French soup(e), soup; c. SOPAIPILLA, from Old Spanish sopa, food soaked in liquid. a–c all from Germanic *süp-. 2a. SOP, from Old English sopp- in soppcuppe, cup for dipping bread in, from Germanic *supp-; b. SIP, from Middle English sippen, to sip, from a source probably akin to Low German sippen, to sip, possibly from Germanic *supp-.

III. Possible extended zero-grade form *süg-.

1. SUCK, from Old English sücan, to suck, from Germanic *sük-.

2. SOAK, from Old English socian, to steep, from Germanic shortened form *sukön.

3. SUCTION, SUCTORIA; PROSCIUTTO, from Latin sügere, to suck.

4. Variant form *sük-. SUCCULENT, from Latin sücus, succus, juice.

(Pokorny 1. seu- 912.)

skand- Also skend-. To leap, climb.


2. Suffixed form *skand-alo-. SCANDAL, SLANDER, from Greek skandalon, a snare, trap, stumbling block.

3. Suffixed form *skand-slä-. ECHELON, ESCALADE, SCALE2, from Latin scälae, steps, ladder. (Not in Pokorny; compare Sanskrit skandati, he jumps, and Old Irish scendim, I jump.)

skei- To cut, split. Extension of sek- . Derivatives include science, nice, shit, schism, sheath, ski, and esquire.

1 a. SHIN1, from Old English scinu, shin, shinbone (< “piece cut off”); b. CHINE, from Old French eschine, backbone, piece of meat with part of the backbone. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *ski-nö-.

2. SCIENCE, SCILICET, SCIOLIS; ADSCITITIOUS, CONSCIENCE, CONSCIOUS, NESCIENCE, NICE, OMNISCIENT, PLEBISCITE, PRESCIENT, from Latin scïre, to know (< “to separate one thing from another,” “discern.”)

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *skiy-enä-. SKEAN, from Old Irish scïan, knife.

4. Extended root *skeid-. a. i SHI; GOBSHITE, from Old English *scïtan, to defecate; ii SKATE3; BLATHERSKITE, from Old Norse skïta, to defecate; iii SHYSTER, from Old High German skïzzan, to defecate. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *skïtan, to separate, defecate; b. suffixed zero-grade form *sk(h)id-yo-. SCHISM, SCHIST, SCHIZO-, from Greek skhizein, to split; c. nasalized zero-grade form *ski-n-d-. SCISSIO; EXSCIND, PRESCIND, RESCIND, from Latin scindere, to split.

5. Extended root *skeit-. a. i SHED1, from Old English scëadan, to separate, from Germanic *skaith-, *skaidan; ii SHEATH, from Old English scëath, sheath (< “split stick”), perhaps from Germanic *skaith-; b. SKI, from Old Norse skïdh, log, stick, snowshoe, from Germanic *skïdam; c. o-grade form *skoit-. écu, ESCUDO, ESCUTCHEON, ESQUIRE, SCUDO, SCUTUM, SQUIRE, from Latin scütum, shield (< “board”).

6. Extended root *skeip-. a. SHEAVE2, from Middle English sheve, pulley (< “piece of wood with grooves”); b. SKIVE, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skïfa, to slice, split; c. SHIVER2, from Middle English shivere, scivre, splinter, possibly from a Low German source akin to Middle Low German schever, splinter. a–c all from Germanic *skif-.

(Pokorny skêi- 919.)

skel-1 Also kel-. To cut. Derivatives include scalp, skill, cutlass, half, scalpel, and sculpture.

1 a. SHELL, from Old English scell, sciel, shell; b. SCAGLIOLA, from Italian scaglia, chip. Both a and b from Germanic *skaljö, piece cut off, shell, scale. 2a. SHALE, from Old English sc(e)alu, husk, shell; b. SCALE1, from Old French escale, husk, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skalö. 3a. SCALL, from Old Norse skalli, bald head (< “closely shaved skull”); b. SCALP, from Middle English scalp, top of the head, from a source akin to Old Norse skalpr, sheath, shell. Both a and b from Germanic *skal-.

4. SCALE3, SKOAL, from Old Norse skäl, bowl, drinking vessel (made from a shell), from Germanic *skëlö.

5. SHIELD, from Old English scield, shield (< “board”), from Germanic *skelduz. 6a. SKILL, from Old Norse skil, reason, discernment, knowledge (< “incisiveness”); b. SHELDRAKE, from Middle English scheld, variegated, from a Low German source akin to Middle Dutch schillen, to diversify, with past participle schillede, separated, variegated. Both a and b from Germanic *skeli-.

7. SCHOOL2, SHOAL2, from Middle Low German schöle, troop, or Middle Dutch scöle, both from Germanic *skulö, a division.

8. Suffixed variant form *kel-tro-. COULTER, CULTRATE, CUTLASS, from Latin culter, knife.

9. Suffixed zero-grade form *skl,-yo-. SCALENE, from Greek skallein, to stir up, hoe (> skalenos, uneven).

10. Extended root *skelp-. a. SHELF, from Middle Low German schelf, shelf (< “split piece of wood”), from Germanic *skelf-; b. possibly Germanic *halbaz (< variant root *kelp-), divided. HALF, HALVE, from Old English healf, half; c. perhaps variant *skalp-. SCALPEL, SCULPTURE, from Latin scalpere, to cut, scrape, with derivative sculpere (originally as the combining form of scalpere), to carve.

(Pokorny 1. (s)kel- 923.)

skel-2 To be under an obligation. O-grade (perfect) form *skol-. SHALL, from Old English sceal (used with the first and third person singular pronouns), shall, from Germanic *skal, I owe, hence I ought.

(Pokorny 2. (s)kel- 927.)

sker-1 Also ker-. To cut. Derivatives include shears, scabbard, skirmish, carnage, sharp, scrape, and screw.

I. Basic form *sker-, *ker-.

1 a. SHEAR, from Old English scieran, sceran, to cut; b. SHEER1, from Low German scheren, to move to and fro, and Dutch scheren, to withdraw, depart. Both a and b from Germanic *skeran. 2a. SHARE2, from Old English scëar, plowshare; b. SHARE1, from Old English scearu, scaru, portion, division (but recorded only in the sense of “fork of the body,” “tonsure”). Both a and b from Germanic *skeraz. 3a. SHEAR, from Old English scëar, scissors, from Germanic *skër-ö and *sker-ez-; b. compound *skër-berg-, “sword protector,” scabbard (*berg-, protector; see bhergh-1 ). SCABBARD, from Old French escauberc, scabbard, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old High German scarberc, scabbard. Both a and b from Germanic *skër-.

4. SCORE, from Old Norse skor, notch, tally, twenty, from Germanic *skur-.

5. SCAR2, SKERRY, from Old Norse sker, low reef (< “something cut off”), from Germanic suffixed form *skar-jam.

6. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skorp-o-. SCARF2, from Old Norse skarfr, diagonally-cut end of a board, from Germanic *skarfaz.

7. Suffixed o-grade extended form *skord-o-. SHARD, from Old English sceard, a cut, notch, from Germanic *skardaz.

8. Extended form *skerd- in suffixed zero-grade form *skr,d-o-. a. SHORT, from Old English scort, sceort, “cut,” short; b. SHIRT, from Old English scyrte, skirt (< “cut piece”); c. SKIRT, from Old Norse skyrta, shirt. a–c all from Germanic *skurtaz. 9a. SCARAMOUCH, SCRIMMAGE, SKIRMISH, from Old French eskermir, to fight with a sword, fence, and Old Italian scaramuccia, skirmish, from a source akin to Old High German skirmen, to protect; b. SCREEN, from Middle Dutch scherm, shield. Both a and b from Germanic extended form *skerm-.


11. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-yo-. CORIACEOUS, CORIUM, CUIRASS, CURRIE; EXCORIATE, from Latin corium, leather (originally “piece of hide”).

12. Suffixed zero-grade form *kr,-to-. CURT, CURTAL, KIRTLE, from Latin curtus, short.

13. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-mo-. CORM, from Greek kormos, a trimmed tree trunk.

14. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-i-. COREOPSIS, from Greek koris, bedbug (< “cutter”).

15. Suffixed zero-grade form *skr,-ä-. SHORE1, from Old English scora, shore, from Germanic *skur-ö.

II. Extended roots *skert-, *kert-.

1. Zero-grade form *kr,t- or o-grade form *kort-. CORTE; DECORTICATE, from Latin cortex, bark (< “that which can be cut off”).

2. Suffixed form *kert-snä-. CENACLE, from Latin cëna, meal (< “portion of food”).

III. Extended root *skerp-. SCURF, probably from a Scandinavian source akin to Old English sceorf, scab, scurf, from Germanic *skerf-.

IV. Extended root *skerb(h)-, *skreb(h)-.

1 a. SHARP, from Old English scearp, sharp; b. SCARP, from Italian scarpa, embankment, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Gothic skarpö, pointed object. Both a and b from Germanic *skarpaz, cutting, sharp. 2a. SCRAP1, from Old Norse skrap, “pieces,” remains; b. SCRAPE, from Old Norse skrapa, to scratch. Both a and b from Germanic *skrap-. 3a. SCRABBLE, from Middle Dutch schrabben, to scrape; b. SCRUB1, from Middle Dutch schrobben, to scrape. Both a and b from Germanic *skrab-.

4. SHRUB1, from Old English scrybb, shrub (< “rough plant”), from Germanic *skrub-.

5. SCROBICULATE, from Latin scrobis, trench, ditch.

6. SCREW, SCROFULA, from Latin scröfa, a sow (< “rooter, digger”).

V. Extended root *(s)kers-. BIAS, from Greek epikarsios, at an angle (epi-, at; see epi ), from suffixed zero-grade form *kr,s-yo-.

(Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, Section I. 938.)

sker-2 Also ker-. To turn, bend. Presumed base of a number of distantly related derivatives. Derivatives include shrink, ranch, rink, curve, crepe, circle, search, and crown.

1. Extended form *(s)kreg- in nasalized form *(s)kre-n-g-. a. SHRINK, from Old English scrincan, to wither, shrivel up, from Germanic *skrink-; b. variant *kre-n-g-. i RUCK2, from Old Norse hrukka, a crease, fold; ii FLOUNCE1, from Old French fronce, pleat, from Frankish *hrunkjan, to wrinkle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *hrunk-.

2. Extended form *(s)kregh- in nasalized form *skre-n-gh-. a. RING1, from Old English hring, a ring; b. RANCH, RANGE, RANK1, RIN; ARRANGE, DERANGE, from Old French renc, reng, line, row; c. RINGHALS, from Middle Dutch rinc (combining form ring-), a ring. a–c all from Germanic *hringaz, something curved, circle.

3. Extended form *kreuk-. a. RIDGE, from Old English hrycg, spine, ridge; b. RUCKSACK, from Old High German hrukki, back. Both a and b from Germanic hrugjaz.

4. Suffixed variant form *kur-wo-. CURB, CURVATURE, CURVE, CURVET, from Latin curvus, bent, curved.

5. Suffixed extended form *kris-ni-. CRINOLINE, from Latin crïnis (< *crisnis), hair.

6. Suffixed extended form *kris-tä-. CREST, CRISTA, CRISTATE, from Latin crista, tuft, crest.

7. Suffixed extended form *krip-so-. CREPE, CRISP, CRISPATE, from Latin crispus (metathesized from *cripsus), curly.

8. Extended expressive form *krïss-. CRISSUM, from Latin crïsäre, (of women) to wiggle the hips during copulation.

9. Perhaps reduplicated form *ki-kr-o-. CIRCA, CIRCADIAN, CIRCINATE, CIRCINUS, CIRCLE, CIRCUM-, CIRCUS, CIRQUE, SEARC; CRICOID, RECHERCHé, from Greek kirkos, krikos, a ring.

10. Suffixed o-grade form *kor-öno-. CORONA, CROWN, KORUNA, KRONA1, KRONA2, KRONE1, KRONE2, from Greek korönos, curved.

11. Suffixed variant form *kur-to. KURTOSIS, from Greek kurtos, convex.

(Pokorny 3. (s)ker- 935.)

sker-3 Excrement, dung. Oldest form *skìer-, becoming *sker- in centum languages.

1. Suffixed unextended form *sk-ör, alternating with *sk-n,-. SCATO-, SCORIA, SKATOLE, from Greek skör (stem skat- < *sk-n,-t-), dung.

2. Extended form *skert- in taboo metathesis *sterk-os-. a. STERCORACEOUS, from Latin stercus, dung; b. variant forms *(s)terg-, *(s)treg-. DRECK, from Middle High German drëc, dung, from Germanic *threkka-.

(Pokorny skìer-(d-) 947, 8. (s)ter- 1031.)

(s)keu- To cover, conceal. Zero-grade form *(s)ku-. Variant *(s)keu@-, zero-grade form *(s)ku@-, contracted to *(s)kü-. Derivatives include sky, meerschaum, scum, obscure, recoil, and hoard.

1. Suffixed basic form. a. SKY, from Old Norse skÿ, cloud; b. SKEWBALD, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skÿ, cloud. Both a and b from Germanic *skeu-jam, cloud (“cloud cover”).

2. Zero-grade form *skü-. a. Suffixed form *skü-mo-. i SKIM, from Old French escume, scum; ii MEERSCHAUM, from Old High German scüm, scum; iii SCUM, from Middle Dutch schüm, scum. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *skümaz, foam, scum (< “that which covers the water”); b. suffixed form *skü-ro-. OBSCUR; CHIAROSCURO, from Latin obscürus, “covered,” dark (ob-, away from; see epi ).

3. Zero-grade form *kû-. a. Suffixed form *kü-ti-. HIDE2, from Old English hÿd, skin, hide, from Germanic *hüdiz; b. suffixed form *ku-ti-. CUTANEOUS, CUTICLE, CUTI; CUTIN, from Latin cutis skin; c. possibly suffixed form *kü-lo-. CULET, CULOTT; BASCULE, RECOIL, from Latin cülus, the rump, backside; d. suffixed form *ku-to-. -cyte, CYTO-, from Greek kutos, a hollow, vessel.

4. Extended zero-grade form *kus-. a. i HOSE, HOSEL, from Old English hosa, hose, covering for the leg; ii LEDERHOSEN, from Old High German hosa, leg covering. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *husön-; b. suffixed form *kuz-dho- (or suffixed extended form *kudh-to-). i HOARD, from Old English hord, stock, store, treasure (< “thing hidden away”), from Germanic *huzdam; ii compound *kuzdho-zd-, “sitting (over) a treasure” (*-zd-, sitting; see sed- ). CUSTODY, from Latin custös, guard; c. KISHKE, from Russian kishka, gut (< “sheath”).

5. Suffixed extended zero-grade form *kut-no-. CUNNILINGUS, from Latin cunnus, vulva (< “sheath”).

6. Extended root *keudh-. a. HIDE1, from Old English hÿdan, to hide, cover up, from Germanic suffixed lengthened zero-grade form *hüd-jan; b. HUT, from French hutte, hut, from Germanic suffixed zero-grade form *hüd-jön-; c. HUDDLE, from Low German hudeln, to crowd together, probably from Germanic *hûd-.

7. SHIELING, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse skäli, hut, from Germanic suffixed o-grade form *skaw-ala-.

(Pokorny 2. (s)keu- 951.)

skeud- To shoot, chase, throw. Derivatives include shoot, shut, and scuttle1.

1. SHOOT, from Old English scëotan, to shoot, from Germanic *skeutan, to shoot. 2a. SHOT1, from Old English sceot, scot, shooting, a shot; b. SCHUSS, from Old High German scuz, shooting, a shot; c. SCOT, SCOT and lot, from Old Norse skot and Old French escot, contribution, tax (< “money thrown down”); d. WAINSCOT, from Middle Dutch sc(h)ot, crossbar, wooden partition. a–d all from Germanic *skutaz, shooting, shot.

3. SHUT, from Old English scyttan, to shut (by pushing a crossbar), probably from Germanic *skutjan.

4. SHUTTLE, from Old English scytel, a dart, missile, from Germanic *skutilaz. 5a. SHEET2, from Old English scëata, corner of a sail; b. SHEET1, from Old English scëte, piece of cloth. Both a and b from Germanic *skautjön-. 6a. SCOUT2, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse sküta, mockery (< “shooting of words”); b. SHOUT, from Old Norse sküta, a taunt. Both a and b from Germanic *skut-.

(Pokorny 2. (s)keud- 955.)

skrïbh- To cut, separate, sift. Extension of sker-1 .


2. SCARIFY1, from Greek skarïphos, scratching, sketch, pencil.

(Pokorny 4. (s)ker-, Section II. 945.)

slëb- To be weak, sleep. Possibly related to slëg- through a hypothetical base *slë- (< earlier *sle@1-). SLEEP, from Old English slaëpan, to sleep, and slaëp, sleep, from Germanic *slëpan, *slëpaz. (In Pokorny lêb- 655.)

slëg- Also lëg-. To be slack, be languid. Possibly related to slëb- through a hypothetical base *slë- (< earlier *sle@1-). Zero-grade form *sl@g-, becoming *slag-.

1. SLACK1, from Old English slæc, “loose,” indolent, careless, from Germanic *slak-.

2. Suffixed form *lag-so-. LAX, LEASE, LESSO; RELAX, RELEASE, RELISH, from Latin laxus, loose, slack.

3. Suffixed nasalized form *la-n-g-u-. LACHES, LANGUID, LANGUISH, LUSH1, from Latin languëre, to be languid.

4. Compound *lag-ous-, “with drooping ears” (*ous-, ear; see ous- ). LAGOMORPH, from Greek lagös, lagos, hare.

5. Suffixed form *lag-no-. ALGOLAGNIA, from Greek lagnos, lustful, lascivious.

6. Basic form *slëg-. CATALECTIC, from Greek lëgein, to leave off.

(Pokorny (s)lëg- 959.)

slei@- Bluish.

1. O-grade form *sloi(@)-. SLOE, from Old English släh, slä, sloe (< “bluish fruit”), from Germanic *slaihwön.

2. Zero-grade form *slï- (contracted from *sli@-). a. Suffixed form *slï-wo-. LAVENDER, LIVID, from Latin lïvëre, to be bluish; b. Suffixed form *slï-wä-. SLIVOVITZ, from Serbo-Croatian s^ljìva, plum.

(Pokorny (s)lï- 965.)

sleubh- To slide, slip. Derivatives include sleeve, lubricate, and slop1.

I. Basic form *sleubh-.

1. SLEEVE, from Old English slëf, slïf, slïef, sleeve (into which the arm slips), from Germanic *sleub-.

2. SLOVEN, from Middle Low German slôven, to put on clothes carelessly, from Germanic *slaubjan.

3. Suffixed form *sleubh-ro-. LUBRICATE, LUBRICITY, LUBRICIOUS, from Latin lübricus, slippery.

II. Variant Germanic root form *sleup-.

1 a. SLIP3; COWSLIP, OXLIP, from Old English slypa, slyppe, slipa, slime, slimy substance; b. SLOP1, from Old English *sloppe, dung; c. SLOP2, from Old English (ofer)slop, surplice. a–c all from Germanic *slup-.

2. SLOOP, from Middle Dutch slüpen, to glide.

(Pokorny sleub(h)- 963.)

smei- To laugh, smile.

1. SMIRK, from Old English smercian, to smile (with -k- formative), from Germanic reshaped forms *smer-, *smar-.

2. SMILE, from Middle English smilen, to smile, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Swedish smila, to smile, from Germanic extended form *smïl-.

3. Suffixed form *smei-ro-. MARVEL, MIRACLE, MIRAGE, MIRRO; ADMIRE, from Latin mïrus, wonderful.

4. Prefixed zero-grade form *ko(m)-smi-, smiling with (*ko-, *kom-, together; see kom ). COMITY, from Latin cömis (< cosmis), courteous.

(Pokorny 1. (s)mei- 967.)

(s)mer-1 To remember.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *mr,-no-. MOURN, from Old English murnan, to mourn, from Germanic *murnan, to remember sorrowfully.

2. Reduplicated form *me-mor-. a. MIMIR, from Old Norse Mimir, a giant who guards the well of wisdom, from Germanic *mi-mer-; b. MEMORABLE, MEMORANDUM, MEMOR; COMMEMORATE, REMEMBER, from Latin memor, mindful.

(Pokorny (s)mer- 969.)

(s)mer-2 To get a share of something.

1. Suffixed (stative) form *mer-ë-. MERETRICIOUS, MERI; DEMERIT, EMERITUS, TURMERIC, from Latin merëre, merërï, to receive a share, deserve, serve.

2. Suffixed form *mer-o-. -mere, MERISTEM, MERO-, -merou; ALLOMERISM, DIMER, ISOMER, MONOMER, POLYMER, TRIMER, from Greek meros (feminine meris), a part, division. (In Pokorny (s)mer- 969.)

snä- To swim. Oldest form *sne@2-, colored to *sna@2-, contracted to *snä-.

1. Extended form *snägh-. NEKTON, from Greek nëkhein, to swim.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *(s)n@-to-. NATANT, NATATION, NATATORIAL, NATATORIU; SUPERNATANT, from Latin näre, to swim, and frequentative natäre, to swim.

3. CHERSONESE, from Greek nësos, island, attributed by some to this root (but more likely obscure).

(Pokorny snä- 971.) See also extension (s)näu- .

(s)näu- To swim, flow, let flow, whence suckle. Oldest form *sne@2u-; colored to *sna@2u-, contracted to *(s)näu-. Extension of snä- .

1. Suffixed basic form *näw-yo-. NAIAD, from Greek Naias, fountain nymph, probably from nän, to flow.

2. Variant root form *(s)neu(@)-. NEUSTON, from Greek nein, to swim.

3. Zero-grade form *(s)nü- (< *snu@-) in suffixed form *nü-trï (with feminine agent suffix). NOURISH, NURSE, NURTURE, NUTRIENT, NUTRIMENT, NUTRITION, NUTRITIOUS, NUTRITIVE, from Latin nütrïx, nurse, and nütrïre, to suckle, nourish. (In Pokorny snä- 971.)

(s)në- Also në-. To spin, sew. Contracted from earlier *(s)ne@1-.

1. Suffixed form *në-tlä-. NEEDLE, from Old English naëdl, needle, from Germanic *nëthlö.

2. Suffixed form *snë-mn,. NEMATO; AXONEME, CHROMONEMA, PROTONEMA, SYNAPTINEMAL comples, TREPONEMA, from Greek nëma, thread.

3. Suffixed o-grade form *snö-tä-. SNOOD, from Old English snöd, headband, from Germanic *snödö.

(Pokorny (s)në- 973.)

(s)ne@u- Tendon, sinew. Oldest form *sne@1u-. Extension of (s)në- . Suffixed form *(s)ne@w-r,-, with further suffixes. a. *neu-r-o-. NEURO-, NEURON, NEURUL; APONEUROSIS, from Greek neuron, sinew; b. metathesized form *nerwo-. NERV; ENERVATE, from Latin nervus, sinew.

(Pokorny snëu- 977.)

sneigwh- Snow; to snow.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *snoigwh-o-. SNOW, from Old English snäw-, snow, from Germanic *snaiwaz.

2. Zero-grade form *snigwh-. Névé, NIVAL, NIVEOUS, from Latin nix, snow.

(Pokorny sneigu_h- 974.)

so- This, that (nominative). For other cases see to- .

1. THE1, from Late Old English the, masculine demonstrative pronoun, replacing se (with th- from oblique forms; see to- ).

2. HOI polloi, from Greek ho, the.

3. Feminine form *syä-. SHE, from Old English sëo, sïe, she, from Germanic *sjö.

4. Compound variant form *sei-ke (*-ke, “this”; see ko- ). SIC1, from Latin sïc, thus, so, in that manner.

(Pokorny so(s) 978.)

sol- Whole. Also sol@- (oldest form *sol@2-). Derivatives include solid, catholic, and salvo.

I. Basic form *sol-.

1. Suffixed form *sol-ido-. SOLDER, SOLDIER, SOLID, SO; CONSOLIDATE, from Latin solidus, solid.

2. Suffixed form *sol-wo-. HOLO; CATHOLIC, from Greek holos, whole.

3. Dialectal geminated form *soll-o-. a. SOLICIT, SOLICITOU; INSOUCIANT, from Latin sollus, whole, entire, unbroken; b. SOLEMN, from Latin sollemnis (second element obscure), celebrated at fixed dates (said of religious rites), established, religious, solemn.

II. Variant form *sol@-.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form sl,@-u- giving *sal-u-. SALUBRIOUS, SALUTARY, SALUTE, from Latin salüs, health, a whole or sound condition.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *sl,@-wo- giving *sala-wo-. SAFE, SAGE2, SALVAGE, SALVO1, SALVO2, SAVE1, SAVE2, from Latin salvus, whole, safe, healthy, uninjured.

(Pokorny solo- 979.)

spë- To thrive, prosper. Contracted from *spe@1-.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *spö-ti-. SPEE; GODSPEED, from Old English spëd, success, from Germanic *spödiz.

2. Suffixed form *spë-s-. DESPAIR, ESPERANCE, from Latin spëräre, to hope, denominative of spës (plural spërës), hope.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sp@-ro-. PROSPER, from Latin prosperus, favorable, prosperous (traditionally regarded as from prö spërë, according to one's hope; prö, according to; see per1 ).

(Pokorny 3. sp(h)ë(i)- 983.)

spek- To observe. Oldest form *spekì-, becoming *spek- in centum languages. Derivatives include espionage, spectrum, despise, suspect, despicable, bishop, and telescope.

I. Basic form *spek-.

1 a. ESPY, SPY, from Old French espier, to watch; b. ESPIONAGE, from Old Italian spione, spy, from Germanic derivative *speh-ön-, watcher. Both a and b from Germanic *spehön.


3. SPECIES, speciou; ESPECIAL, from Latin speciës, a seeing, sight, form.

4. Suffixed form *spek-s, “he who sees,” in Latin compounds. a. Latin haruspex (see gher@- ); b. Latin auspex (see awi- ).

5. Suffixed form *spek-ä-. DESPICABLE, from Latin (denominative) dëspicärï, to despise, look down on (dë-, down; see de- ).

6. Suffixed metathetical form *skep-yo-. SKEPTIC, from Greek skeptesthai, to examine, consider.

II. Extended o-grade form *spoko-. SCOPE, -scope, -scop; BISHOP, EPISCOPAL, HOROSCOPE, TELESCOPE, from metathesized Greek skopos, one who watches, also object of attention, goal, and its denominative skopein (< *skop-eyo-), to see.

(Pokorny spekì- 984.)

(s)pen- To draw, stretch, spin. Derivatives include spider, pansy, pendant1, appendix, penthouse, and spontaneous.

I. Basic form *spen-.

1. Suffixed form *spen-wo-. a. SPIDER, SPIN, from Old English spinnan, to spin, and spïthra, spider, contracted from Germanic derivative *spin-thrön-, “the spinner”; b. SPINDLE, from Old English spinel, spindle, from Germanic derivative *spin-ilön-. Both a and b from Germanic *spinnan, to spin.


3. Perhaps suffixed form *pen-yä-. -penia, from Greek peniä, lack, poverty (< “a strain, exhaustion”).

4. GEOPONIC, LITHOPONE, from Greek ponos, toil, and ponein, to toil, o-grade derivatives of penesthai, to toil.

II. O-grade forms *spon-, *pon-.

1 a. SPAN2, SPANCEL, from Middle Dutch spannen, to bind; b. SPANNER, from Old High German spannan, to stretch. Both a and b from Germanic *spannan.

2. SPAN1, from Old English span(n), distance, from Germanic *spanno-.

3. Perhaps Germanic *spangö. SPANGLE, from Middle Dutch spange, clasp.

4. Suffixed and extended form *pond-o-. POUND1, from Latin pondö, by weight.

5. Suffixed and extended form *pond-es-. PONDER, PONDEROU; EQUIPONDERATE, PREPONDERATE, from Latin pondus (stem ponder-), weight, and its denominative ponderäre, to weigh, ponder.

6. Suffixed o-grade form *spon-t-. SPONTANEOUS, from Latin sponte, of one's own accord, spontaneously (but this is more likely related to the Germanic verb *spanan, to entice, from a homophonous root).

(Pokorny (s)pen-(d-) 988.)

spend- To make an offering, perform a rite, hence to engage oneself by a ritual act. O-grade from *spond-.

1. Suffixed form *spond-eyo-. SPONSOR, SPOUS; DESPOND, ESPOUSE, RESPOND, from Latin spondëre, to make a solemn promise, pledge, betroth.

2. Suffixed form *spond-ä-. SPONDEE, from Greek spondë, libation, offering.

(Pokorny spend- 989.)

sper- To strew. Derivatives include sprawl, sperm1, and sporadic.

I. Zero-grade form *spr-.

1. SPRAWL, from Old English sprëawlian, to sprawl, from Germanic *spr-.

2. Extended form *spreud-. a. SPROUT, from Old English -sprütan, to sprout (only in ä-sprütan, to sprout forth); b. SPRITZ, SPRITZER, from Middle High German sprützen, to spurt, spray; c. SPRIT, from Old English sprëot, pole (< “sprout, stem”); d. BOWSPRIT, from Middle Low German böchsprët, bowsprit. a–d all from Germanic *sprüt-.

3. Extended form *spreit-. SPRAY2, SPREAD, from Old English -spraëdan, to spread, from Germanic *spraidjan.

II. Basic form *sper-.

1. Suffixed form *sper-yo-. DIASPORA, from Greek speirein, to scatter, with derivative sporä, a scattering, sowing (see III. 1. ).

2. Suffixed form *sper-mn,. SPERM1, from Greek sperma, sperm, seed (< “that which is scattered”).

III. O-grade form *spor-.

1. Suffixed form *spor-ä-. SPORE, SPORO; EXOSPORIUM, from Greek sporä, a sowing, seed.

2. Suffixed form *spor-n,d-. SPORADIC, from Greek sporas (stem sporad-), scattered, dispersed.

IV. Extended Germanic root *sprë(w)-. SPRAY1, from Middle Dutch spraeien, sprayen, to sprinkle, from Germanic *sprëwjan.

(Pokorny 2. (s)p(h)er- 993.)

sper@- Ankle. Oldest form *sper@2-. Zero-grade form *spr,(@)-.

1. SPUR, from Old English spura, spora, spur, from Germanic suffixed form *spur-ön-.

2. Nasalized zero-grade form *spr,-n-@-. SPURN, from Old English spurnan, spornan, to kick, strike against, from Germanic *spurnön.

3. SPOOR, from Middle Dutch spor, spoor, track of an animal, from Germanic suffixed form *spur-am.

(Pokorny 1. sp(h)er- 992.)

sreu- To flow.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *srou-mo-. a. STREAM, from Old English strëam, stream; b. MAELSTROM, from Middle Dutch stroom, stream. Both a and b from Germanic *straumaz, stream.

2. Basic form *sreu-. a. RHEO-, -rrhe; CATARRH, DIARRHEA, HEMORRHOID, RHYOLITE, from Greek rhein, to flow, with o-grade rhoos, flowing, a flowing; b. suffixed form *sreu-mn,. RHEUM, from Greek rheuma, stream, humor of the body.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sru-dhmo-. RHYTHM, from Greek rhuthmos, measure, recurring motion, rhythm.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *sru-to-. RHYTON, from Greek rhutos, fluid, liquid.

5. Perhaps zero-grade extended form *srug-. SASTRUGA, from Russian struga, deep place.

(Pokorny sreu- 1003.)

stä- To stand; with derivatives meaning “place or thing that is standing.” Oldest form *ste@2-, colored to *sta@2-, contracted to *stä-. Derivatives include steed, stud2, arrest, instant, understand, static, prostitute, insist, ecstasy, and system.

I. Basic form *stä-.

1. Extended form *städh-. a. STEED, from Old English stëda, stallion, studhorse (< “place for breeding horses”), from Germanic *stöd-jön-; b. STUD2, from Old English stöd, establishment for breeding horses, from Germanic *stödö.

2. Suffixed form *stä-lo-. a. STOOL, from Old English stöl, stool; b. Germanic compound *faldistölaz (see pel-2 ). Both a and b from Germanic *stölaz.


4. Suffixed form *stä-men-. ETAMINE, STAMEN, STAMMEL, from Latin stämen, thread of the warp (a technical term).

5. Suffixed form *stä-mon-. PENSTEMON, from Greek stëmön, thread.

6. Suffixed form *stä-ro-. STARETS, from Old Church Slavonic starù, old (“long-standing”).

II. Zero-grade form *st@- (before consonants).

1. Nasalized extended form *st@-n-t-. a. STAND, from Old English standan, to stand; b. UNDERSTAND, from Old English understandan, to know, stand under (under-, under-; see n,dher); c. STANDARD, from Frankish *standan, to stand; d. STOUND, from Old English stund, a fixed time, while, from secondary zero-grade form in Germanic *stund-ö. a–d all from Germanic *standan.

2. Suffixed form *st@-tyo-. STITHY, from Old Norse stedhi, anvil, from Germanic *stathjön-.

3. Suffixed form *st@-tlo-. STADDLE, STALL2, STARLING2; STALWART, from Old English stathol, foundation, from Germanic *stathlaz.

4. Suffixed form *st@-mno-. a. iSTEM1, from Old English stefn, stem, tree trunk; ii STALAG, from Old High German stam, stem. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stamniz; b. ESTAMINET, probably from Walloon stamen, post to which a cow is tied at the feeding-trough, from a source derived from or akin to Germanic *stamniz.

5. Suffixed form *st@-ti-. a. i STEAD, from Old English stede, place; ii SHTETL, from Old High German stat, place. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *stadiz; b. STAT2, from Latin statim, at once; c. STATION, from Latin statiö, a standing still; d. ARMISTICE, SOLSTICE, from Latin -stitium, a stoppage; e. STASIS, from Greek stasis (see III. 1. b. ), a standing, a standstill.

6. Suffixed form *st@-to-. a. BESTEAD, from Old Norse stadhr, place, from Germanic *stadaz, placed; b. -stat, STATIC, STATICE, STATO; ASTASIA, ASTATINE, from Greek statos, placed, standing.

7. Suffixed form *st@-no-. a. DESTINE, from Latin dëstinäre, to make firm, establish (dë-, thoroughly; see de- ); b. OBSTINATE, from Latin obstinäre, to set one's mind on, persist (ob-, on; see epi ).

8. Suffixed form *st@-tu-. ESTATE, étagère, STAGE, STATE, STATISTICS, STATUE, STATURE, STATUS, STATUT; CONSTITUTE, DESTITUTE, INSTITUTE, PROSTITUTE, RESTITUTE, SUBSTITUTE, SUPERSTITION, from Latin status, manner, position, condition, attitude, with derivatives statüra, height, stature, statuere, to set up, erect, cause to stand, and superstes (< *-st@-t-), witness (“who stands beyond”).

9. Suffixed form *st@-dhlo-. STABLE2; CONSTABLE, from Latin stabulum, “standing place,” stable.

10. Suffixed form *st@-dhli-. ESTABLISH, STABLE1, from Latin stabilis, standing firm.

11. Suffixed form *st@-tä. -sta; ENSTATITE, from Greek -statës, one that causes to stand, a standing.

III. Zero-grade form *st-, *st(@)- (before vowels).

1. Reduplicated form *si-st(@)-. a. ASSIST, CONSIST, DESIST, EXIST, INSIST, INTERSTICE, PERSIST, RESIST, SUBSIST, from Latin sistere, to set, place, stop, stand; b. APOSTASY, CATASTASIS, DIASTASE, ecstasy, EPISTASIS, EPISTEMOLOGY, HYPOSTASIS, ICONOSTASIS, ISOSTASY, METASTASIS, PROSTATE, SYSTEM, from Greek histanai (aorist stanai), to set, place, with stasis (*st@-ti-), a standing (see II. 5. e. ); c. HISTO; HISTIOCYTE, HISTOGRAM, from Greek histos, web, tissue (< “that which is set up”).

2. Compound form *tri-st-i-, “third person standing by” (see trei- ).

3. Compound form *por-st-i-, “that which stands before” (*por-, before, forth; see per1 ). POST1, from Latin postis, post.

4. Suffixed form *st-o- in compound *upo-st-o- (see upo ).

IV. Extended root *stäu- (< *sta@u-), becoming *stau- before consonants, *stäw- before vowels; basic meaning “stout-standing, strong.”

1. Suffixed extended form *stäw-ä-. STOW, from Old English stöw, place, from Germanic *stöwö.

2. Probable o-grade suffixed extended form *stöw-yä-. STOA, STOIC, from Greek stoä (also stoiä, stöiä), porch.

3. Suffixed extended form *stau-ro-. a. i STOR; INSTAURATION, from Latin ïnstauräre, to restore, set upright again (in-, on; see en ); ii RESTORE, from Latin restauräre, to restore, rebuild (re-, anew, again; see re-); b. STAUROLITE, from Greek stauros, cross, post, stake.

4. Variant *tau-ro-, bull (see tauro- ).

V. Zero-grade extended root *stü- (< *stu@-). Suffixed form *stü-lo-. STYLIT; AMPHISTYLAR, ASTYLAR, EPISTYLE, HEXASTYLE, HYPOSTYLE, OCTASTYLE, PERISTYLE, PROSTYLE, STYLOBATE, from Greek stülos, pillar.

VI. Secondary full-grade form *steu@-. Suffixed form *steu@-ro-. THERAVADA, from Sanskrit sthavira-, thick, stout, old.

VII. Variant zero-grade extended root *stu-. Suffixed form *stu-t-. STUD1, from Old English stuthu, studu, post, prop.

VIII. Secondary full-grade form *steu-.

1. Suffixed form *steu-rä-. STARBOARD, from Old English stëor-, a steering, from Germanic *steurö, “a steering.” 2a. STEER1, from Old English stïeran, stëran, to steer; b. STERN2, from Middle English sterne, stern of a boat, possibly from a source akin to Old Norse stjörn, a rudder, a steering, derivative of stÿra, to steer. Both a and b from Germanic denominative *steurjan.

3. Suffixed form *steu-ro-, a larger domestic animal. STEER2, from Old English stëor, steer, from Germanic *steuraz, ox.

4. Probably Germanic diminutive *steur-ika-. STIRK, from Old English stïrc, stierc, calf.

(Pokorny stä- 1004.)

stäi- Stone. Oldest form possibly *ste@2i-, colored to *sta@2i-, contracted to *stai- before consonants and *stäy- before vowels.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *stoi-no-. a. STONE, from Old English stän; b. STEENBOK, from Middle Dutch steen, stone; c. TUNGSTEN, from Old Norse steinn, stone; d. STEIN, from Old High German stein, stone. a–d all from Germanic *stainaz.

2. Possibly suffixed form *stäy-r, (earlier *sta@y-r,). STEARIC, STEARIN, STEATITE, STEATO; STEAPSIN, from Greek stear, solid fat, suet.

(Pokorny (s)täi- 1010.)

(s)teg- To cover. Derivatives include thatch, thug, and detect.

I. O-grade form *tog-.

1 a. THATCH, from Old English theccan, to cover; b. DECK2, from Middle Dutch decken, to cover; c. DECKLE, from Old High German decchen, to cover. a–c all from Germanic *thakjan. 2a. THATCH, from Old English thæc, thatch; b. DECK1, from Middle Dutch dec, decke, roof, covering. Both a and b from Germanic *thakam.

3. Suffixed form *tog-ä-, covering. TOGA, from Latin toga, toga.

4. Possibly Sanskrit sthagayati, he covers: THUG.

II. Basic form *steg-. STEGODON, from Greek stegein, to cover.

III. Basic form *teg-. TECTRIX, TECTUM, TEGMEN, TEGMENTUM, TEGULAR, TEGUMENT, TILE, TUILL; DETECT, INTEGUMENT, OBTECT, PROTECT, from Latin tegere, to cover, and tëgula, tile (with lengthened-grade root).

(Pokorny 1. (s)teg- 1013.)

stegh- To stick, prick; pointed.

1. Perhaps nasalized form *stengh-. STING, from Old English stingan, to sting, from Germanic *stingan.

2. O-grade form *stogh-. a. STAG, from Old English stagga, stag, from Germanic *stag-; b. STOCHASTIC, from Greek stokhos, pointed stake or pillar (used as a target for archers), goal.

(Pokorny stegh- 1014.)

steig- To stick; pointed. Partly blended with stegh- . Derivatives include stitch, ticket, instinct, stigma, tiger, and steak.

I. Zero-grade form *stig-.

1. STICKLEBACK, from Old English sticel, a prick, sting, from Germanic suffixed form *stik-ilaz.

2. Suffixed form *stig-i-. STITCH, from Old English stice, a sting, prick, from Germanic *stikiz.

3. STICK, from Old English sticca, stick, from Germanic expressive form *stikkön-.

4. ETIQUETTE, TICKET, from Old French estiquier, to stick, from Germanic stative *stikkën, “to be stuck.”

5. SNICKERSNEE, from Middle Dutch steken, to stick, stab, from Germanic blended variant *stekan.

6. Nasalized zero-grade form *sti-n-g-. DISTINGUISH, EXTINGUISH, INSTINCT, from Latin stinguere, to quench, perhaps originally to prick, and its apparent derivative dïstinguere, to separate (phonological and semantic transitions obscure).

7. Suffixed form *stig-yo-. STIGM; ASTIGMATISM, from Greek stizein, to prick, tattoo.

8. Suffixed reduced form *tig-ro-. TIGER, from Greek tigris, tiger (from its stripes), from the same Iranian source as Old Persian tigra-, sharp, pointed, and Avestan tighri-, arrow.

II. Basic form *(s)teig-.

1. INSTIGATE, from Latin ïnstïgäre, to urge, from -stïgäre, to spur on, prod.

2. RAITA, from Sanskrit tejate (verbal adjective tikta-), it is sharp.

III. Suffixed o-grade form *stoig-ä-. STEAK, from Old Norse steik, roast, steak, and steikja, to roast (on a spit), from Germanic *staikö.

IV. Extended variant form *teigs-. a. THISTLE, from Old English thistel; b. DISTELFINK, from Old High German distil, thistle. Both a and b from Germanic *thistilaz, perhaps simplified from earlier *thïhstilaz.

(Pokorny (s)teig- 1016.)

steigh- To stride, step, rise. Derivatives include stirrup, acrostic and stair.

I. Basic form *steigh-. STY2; STIRRUP, from Old English stïgan, to go up, rise, from Germanic *stïgan.

II. Zero-grade form *stigh-.

1. STILE1, from Old English stigel, series of steps, from Germanic *stigila-.

2. Suffixed form *stigh-to-. STICKLE, from Old English stiht(i)an, to settle, arrange, from Germanic *stihtan, “to place on a step or base.”

3. Suffixed form *stigh-o-. STIC; ACROSTIC, CADASTRE, DISTICH, HEMISTICH, PENTASTICH, STICHOMETRY, STICHOMYTHIA, from Greek stikhos, row, line, line of verse.

III. O-grade form *stoigh-.

1. Suffixed form *stoigh-ri-. STAIR, from Old English staëger, stair, step, from Germanic *staigrï.

2. STOICHIOMETRY, from Greek stoikheion, shadow line, element.

(Pokorny steigh- 1017.)

stel- To put, stand; with derivatives referring to a standing object or place. Derivatives include apostle, stallion, pedestal, stilt, and stout.

I. Basic form *stel-.

1. Suffixed form *stel-ni-. STILL1, from Old English stille, quiet, fixed, from Germanic *stilli-.

2. Suffixed form *stel-yo-. APOSTLE, DIASTOLE, EPISTLE, PERISTALSIS, SYSTALTIC, from Greek stellein, to put in order, prepare, send, make compact (with o-grade and zero-grade forms stol- and stal-).

II. O-grade form *stol-.

1. Suffixed form *stol-no-. a. STALL1; FORESTALL, from Old English steall, standing place, stable; b. STALE1; INSTALLMENT1, from Old French estal, place; c. STALLION, from Anglo-Norman estaloun, stallion; d. PEDESTAL, from Old Italian stallo, stall; e. INSTALL, from Medieval Latin stallum, stall; f. GESTALT, from Old High German stellen, to set, place, from Germanic denominative *stalljan. a–f all from Germanic *stalla-.

2. Suffixed form *stol-ön-. STOLON, from Latin stolö, branch, shoot.

3. Suffixed form *stol-ido-. STOLID, from Latin stolidus, “firm-standing,” stupid.

4. Suffixed form *stol-ä-. a. STALK1, from Old English stalu, upright piece, stalk, from Germanic *stalö; b. STOLE1, from Greek stolë, garment, array, equipment.

III. Zero-grade form *stl,-.

1. Suffixed form *stl,-to-. STULTIFY, from Latin stultus, foolish (< “unmovable, uneducated”).

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *stl,-no-. STULL, STOLLEN, from Old High German stollo, post, support, from Germanic *stullön-.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *stal-nä-. STELE, from Greek stëlë, pillar.

IV. Extended form *steld-. a. STILT, from Middle English stilte, crutch, stilt, from a source akin to Low German and Flemish stilte, stick, from Germanic *stiltjön-; b. zero-grade form *stl,d-. STOUT, from Old French estout, stout, from Germanic *stult-, “walking on stilts,” strutting.

(Pokorny 3. stel- 1019.)

(s)ten@- To thunder. Oldest form *sten@2-.

1. Zero-grade form *stn,@-. a. THUNDE; THURSDAY, from Old English thunor, thunder, Thor; b. BLUNDERBUSS, DUNDERHEAD, from Middle Dutch doner, donder, thunder; c. THOR, from Old Norse Thörr (older form Thunarr), “thunder,” thunder god. a–c all from Germanic *thunaraz.

2. O-grade form *ton@-. TORNAD; ASTONISH, DETONATE, STUN, from Latin tonäre, to thunder.

(Pokorny 1. (s)ten- 1021.)

ster-1 Stiff. Derivatives include stare, starch, stork, starve, and torpedo.

I. O-grade form *stor-.

1. Suffixed form *stor-ë-. STARE, from Old English starian, to stare, from Germanic *starën.

2. Extended form *stor-g-. a. STARK, from Old English stearc, hard, severe, from Germanic *starkaz; b. STARCH, from Old English *stercan, to stiffen, from Germanic denominative *starkjan.

II. Full-grade form *ster-.

1. STERN1, from Old English stierne, styrne, firm, from Germanic *sternjaz.

2. Suffixed form *ster-ewo-. STERE, STEREO; CHOLESTEROL, from Greek stereos, solid.

3. Lengthened-grade form *stër-. STERIGMA, from Greek stërizein, to support.

III. Zero-grade form *str,-.

1. Extended form *str,g-. STORK, from Old English storc, stork (probably from the stiff movements of the bird), from Germanic *sturkaz.

2. STRUT, from Old English strütian, to stand out stiffly, from Germanic *strüt-.

IV. Extended form *sterd-.

1. REDSTART, STARK-naked, from Old English steort, tail, from Germanic *stertaz. 2a. START, from Old English *styrtan, to leap up (< “move briskly, move stiffly”); b. STARTLE, from Old English steartlian, to kick, struggle. Both a and b from Germanic *stert-.

V. Extended form *sterbh-. STARVE, from Old English steorfan, to die (< “become rigid”), from Germanic *sterban.

VI. Extended form *(s)terp- in suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *tr,p-ë-. TORPEDO, TORPID, TORPOR, from Latin torpëre, to be stiff.

(Pokorny 1. (s)ter- 1022.)

ster-2 Also ster@-. To spread. Derivatives include destroy, industry, straw, street, and stratagem.

I. Extended form *streu-.

1. STRAIN2, from Old English strëon, something gained, offspring, from Germanic suffixed form *streu-nam.


3. Zero-grade form *stru-. INDUSTRY, from Latin industrius, diligent, from Archaic Latin indostruus (endo-, within; see en ).

4. BREMSSTRAHLUNG, from Old High German sträla, arrow, lightning bolt, from Germanic *strëlö.

II. O-grade extended form *strou-.

1. Suffixed form *strou-eyo-. a. STREW, from Old English strë(o)wian, to strew; b. STREUSEL, from Old High German strouwen, strowwen, to sprinkle, strew. Both a and b from Germanic *strawjan.

2. Suffixed form *strow-o-. STRAW, from Old English strëaw, straw, from Germanic *strawam, “that which is scattered.”

III. O-grade extended form *stroi-. PERESTROIKA, from Old Russian strojì, order.

IV. Basic forms *ster-, *ster@-.

1. Nasalized form *ster-n-@-. ESTRAY, STRATUS, STRAY, STREE; CONSTERNATE, PROSTRATE, SUBSTRATUM, from Latin sternere (past participle strätus from zero-grade *str,@-to-), to stretch, extend.

2. Suffixed form *ster-no-. STERNU; STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID, from Greek sternon, breast, breastbone.

V. Zero-grade form *str,-, *str,@-.

1. Suffixed form *str,-to-. STRATAGE; STRATOCRACY, from Greek stratos, multitude, army, expedition.

2. Suffixed form *str,@-to-. STRATH, from Old Irish srath, a wide river valley, from Celtic *s(t)rato-.

3. Suffixed extended form *str,@-mn,. STROM; STROMATOLITE, from Greek ströma, mattress, bed.

(Pokorny 5. ster- 1029.)

ster-3 Star. Oldest form *@2ster-.

1. Suffixed form *ster-s-. STAR, from Old English steorra, star, from Germanic *sterzön-.

2. Suffixed form *stër-lä-. STELLAR, STELLAT; CONSTELLATION, from Latin stëlla, star.

3. Basic form *@ster-. ASTER, ASTERIATED, ASTERISK, ASTERISM, ASTEROID, ASTRAL, ASTRO; ASTRAPHOBIA, DISASTER, from Greek astër, star, with its derivative astron, star, and possible compound astrapë, asteropë, lightning, twinkling (< “looking like a star”; öps, op-, eye, appearance; see okw- ).

4. ESTHER1, perhaps from Persian sitareh, star, from Iranian stem *stâr- (or perhaps of Semitic origin; see ctr in Appendix II).

(Pokorny 2. stêr- 1027.)

streb(h)- To wind, turn. European root.

1. STREPTO-, STROP, STROPHE, STROPHOID, STROPHULU; ANASTROPHE, APOSTROPHE1, BOUSTROPHEDON, CATASTROPHE, DIASTROPHISM, from Greek strephein, to wind, turn, twist, with o-grade derivatives strophë, a turning, and strophion, headband.

2. Unaspirated o-grade form *strob-. STROBILU; STROBOSCOPE, from Greek strobos, a whirling, whirlwind.

3. Unaspirated zero-grade form *str,b-. STRABISMUS, STRABOTOMY, from Greek strabos, squinting. (In Pokorny 1. (s)ter- 1022.)

streig- To stroke, rub, press. European root. Derivatives include streak, prestige, and restrict.

I. Basic form *streig-.

1 a. STRIKE, from Old English strïcan, to stroke; b. TRICOT, from Old French estriquier, to strike. Both a and b from Germanic *strïkan.

2. STRICKLE, from Old English stricel, implement for leveling grain, from Germanic diminutive *strik-ila-.

3. STREAK, from Old English strica, stroke, line, from Germanic *strikön-.

II. O-grade form *stroig-. STROKE1, from Old English *sträc, stroke, from Germanic *straik-.

III. Zero-grade form *strig-.

1. Suffixed form *strig-ä-. STRIGOSE, from Latin striga, row of grain, furrow drawn lengthwise over the field.

2. Suffixed form *strig-yä-. STRIA, from Latin stria, furrow, channel.

3. Nasalized zero-grade form *stri-n-g-. STRAIN1, STRAIT, STRESS, STRETTO, STRICT, STRINGENDO, STRINGEN; ASTRINGENT, CONSTRAIN, DISTRAIN, DISTRESS, PRESTIGE, RESTRAIN, RESTRICT, from Latin stringere, to draw tight, press together.

4. STRIGIL, from Latin strigilis, strigil, possibly akin to stringere.

(Pokorny 1. streig-, 2. streig- 1036, 4. ster- 1028.)

sü- Pig. Contracted from *su@-; probably a derivative of seu@-1 .

1. Suffixed form *su@-ïno-. a. SWINE, from Old English swïn, swine; b. KEELSON, from Old Norse svïn, swine. Both a and b from Germanic *swïnam.

2. Suffixed form *su-kä-. a. i HOG, from Old English hogg, hog, from British Celtic *hukk-, from Celtic expressive form *sukko-, swine, snout of a swine; ii SOCKET, from Anglo-Norman soc, plowshare, perhaps from Celtic *sukko-; b. SOW2, from Old English sugu, sow, from Germanic *sugö.

3. Basic form *sü-. SOW2, from Old English sü, from Germanic *sü-.

4. SOIL2, from Latin süs, pig.

5. HYADES, HYEN; HYOSCINE, from Greek hüs, swine.

(Pokorny sû-s 1038.)

swäd- Sweet, pleasant. Oldest form *swe@2d-, colored to *swa@2d-, contracted to *swäd-.

1. SWEET, from Old English swëte, sweet, from Germanic *swötja-.

2. Suffixed form *swäd-ë-. SUASIO; ASSUASIVE, DISSUADE, PERSUADE, from Latin suädëre, to advise, urge (< “recommend as good”).

3. Suffixed form *swäd-wi-. SOAVE, SUAV; ASSUAGE, from Latin suävis, delightful.

4. Suffixed form *swäd-es-. AEDES, from Greek ëdos, pleasure.

5. Suffixed form *swäd-onä. HEDONIC, HEDONISM, from Greek hëdonë, pleasure.

(Pokorny su_äd- 1039.)

s(w)e- Pronoun of the third person and reflexive (referring back to the subject of the sentence); further appearing in various forms referring to the social group as an entity, “(we our-)selves.” Derivatives include self, gossip, suicide, secret, sober, sullen, ethic, and idiot.

1. Suffixed extended form *sel-bho-. SELF, from Old English self, sylf, self, same, from Germanic *selbaz, self.

2. Suffixed form *s(w)e-bh(o)-. SI; GOSSIP, from Old English sibb, relative, from Germanic *sibja-, “one's own,” blood relation, relative.

3. Suffixed form *se-ge. BUSTLE1, from Old Norse -sk, reflexive suffix (as in büask, to make oneself ready), from sik, oneself (reflexive pronoun), from Germanic *sik, self.

4. Suffixed form *swoi-no-. SWAI; BOATSWAIN, from Old Norse sveinn, herdsman, boy, from Germanic *swainaz, “one's own (man),” attendant, servant.

5. Suffixed form *s(u)w-o-, one's own. a. SUICIDE, from Latin suï (genitive), of oneself; b. SWAMI, from Sanskrit svämï, “one's own master,” owner, prince, from sva- (< *swo-), one's own.

6. Extended form *sed. SECEDE, SECERN, SECLUDE, SECRET, SECURE, SEDITION, SEDUCTION, SEDULOUS, SEGREGATE, SELECT, SEPARATE, SEVER, SURE, from Latin sëd, së, së-, without, apart (< “on one's own”); c. SOBER, from Latin compound söbrius, not drunk (ëbrius, drunk; see egwh- ).

7. Possibly suffixed lengthened o-grade form *sö-lo. SOLE2, SOLITARY, SOLITUDE, SOLO, SULLE; DESOLATE, SOLILOQUY, SOLIPSISM, from Latin sölus, by oneself alone.

8. Extended root *swêdh-, “that which is one's own,” peculiarity, custom. a. SODALITY, from Latin sodälis, companion (< “one's own,” “relative”); b. suffixed form *swëdh-sko-. CONSUETUDE, CUSTOM, DESUETUDE, MANSUETUDE, MASTIFF, from Latin suëscere, to accustom, get accustomed; c. ETHIC, ETHO; CACOETHES, from Greek ëthos, custom, disposition, trait; d. suffixed form *swedh-no-. ETHNIC, ETHNO-, from Greek ethnos, band of people living together, nation, people (< “people of one's own kind”).

9. Suffixed extended form *swet-aro-. HETAERA, from Greek hetairos, comrade, companion, earlier hetaros.

10. Suffixed extended form *swed-yo-. IDIO-, IDIOM, IDIO; IDIOPATHY, IDIOSYNCRASY, from Greek idios, personal, private (“particular to oneself”).

11. Suffixed form *swei-no-. SINN Fein, from Old Irish féin, self.

12. Suffixed (ablatival) form *swe-tos, from oneself. KHEDIVE, from Old Iranian khvadäta-, lord, by haplology from compound form *khvatö-däta-, created from oneself (däta-, created; see dhë- ).

13. Perhaps suffixed form *swe-tono-. KHOTANESE, from Khotanese Hvatana-, perhaps “those holding their own (power), masters.”

(Pokorny se- 882.)

sweid- Sweat; to sweat.

I. O-grade form *swoid-.

1. SWEAT, from Old English swaëtan, to sweat, from Germanic *swaitaz, sweat, with its denominative *swaitjan, to sweat.

2. Suffixed form *swoid-os-. SUDORIFI; SUDORIFEROUS, from Latin südor, sweat.

3. O-grade form *swoid-ä-. SUDATORIUM, SUIN; EXUDE, TRANSUDE, from Latin südäre, to sweat.

II. Suffixed zero-grade form *swid-r-os-. HIDROSIS, from Greek hidrös, sweat.

(Pokorny 2. su_eid- 1043.)

s(w)eks Six. Oldest form *s(w)ekìs, becoming *s(w)eks in centum languages.

I. Form *seks.

1. SI; SIXTEEN, SIXTY, from Old English s(i)ex, six, with derivatives sixtig, sixty, and sixtÿne, sixteen (-tÿne, ten; see dekm, ), from Germanic *seks.

2. SENARY, SEX; SEICENTO, SEMESTER, from Latin sex, six.

3. Suffixed form *seks-to-. SESTET, SESTINA, SEXT, SEXTANT, SEXTIL; SEXTODECIMO, SIESTA, SISTINE, from Latin sextus, sixth.

II. Form *sweks. HEXA-, HEXAD, from Greek hex, six.

(Pokorny su_ekìs 1044.)

swel- To eat, drink.

1. Perhaps Germanic *swil-. SWILL, from Old English swilian, to wash out, gargle.

2. Extended form *swelk-. SWALLOW1; GROUNDSEL1, from Old English swelgan, to swallow, from Germanic *swelgan, *swelhan.

3. MANTICORE, MARKHOR, from Iranian *khvära-, eating.

(Pokorny 1. su_el(k-) 1045.)

swen- To sound. Also swen@- (oldest form *swen@2-).

1. Suffixed o-grade form *swon-o-. a. SWAN1, from Old English swan, swan, from Germanic *swanaz, *swanön-, “singer.” b. SONE, SONIC, SONNET, SOUND1; UNISON, from Latin sonus, a sound.

2. Basic variant form *swen@-. SONANT, SONATA, SONOROU; ASSONANCE, CONSONANT, DISSONANT, RESOUND, from Latin sonäre, to sound.

sanscrit svana

(Pokorny su_en- 1046.)

swep- To sleep.

1. Suffixed form *swep-os-. SOPO; SOPORIFIC, from Latin sopor, a deep sleep.

2. Suffixed form *swep-no-. SOMNI-, SOMNOLEN; INSOMNIA, from Latin somnus, sleep.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *sup-no-. HYPNO-, HYPNOSIS, HYPNOTIC, from Greek hupnos, sleep.

(Pokorny 1. su_ep- 1048.)

swer- To speak, talk. O-grade form *swor-.
a. SWEAR, from Old English swerian, to swear, proclaim, from Germanic *swarjan
b. ANSWER, from Old English andswaru, answer, from Germanic *and-swarö, “a swearing against,” “rebuttal” (*andi-, against; see ant- ).

(Pokorny 1. su_er- 1049.)

swesor- Sister. Perhaps originally a compound of s(w)e- and *esör, woman, so literally “woman of one's own kin group” in an exogamous society.

1. Zero-grade form *swesr-. a. SISTER, from Old English sweostor, sister, and Old Norse systir, sister, both from Germanic *swestr-; b. suffixed form *swesr-ïno-. COUSIN, from Latin sobrïnus, maternal cousin.

2. SORORAL, SORORIT; SORORICIDE, from Latin soror, sister.

(Pokorny su_esor- 1051.)

swo- Pronominal stem; so. Derivative of s(w)e- .

1 a. SO1, from Old English swä, so; b. SUCH, from Old English swylc, such, from Germanic compound *swa-lïk-, “so like,” of the same kind (*lïk-, same; see lïk-).

2. Adverbial form *swai. NISI, QUASI, from Latin sï, if, in nisi, unless (nï, not; see ne-), and quasi, as if (quam, as; see kwo- ). (In Pokorny se- 882.)

syü- Also sü-. To bind, sew. Contracted from *s(y)u@-.

I. Basic form *syü-. SEW, from Old English seowian, siowan, to sew, from Germanic *siwjan.

II. Variant form *sü-.

1. SEAM, from Old English sëam, seam, from Germanic *saumaz.

2. SUTUR; ACCOUTER, COUTURE, from Latin suere (past participle sütus), to sew.

3. Suffixed form *sü-dhlä-. SUBULATE, from Latin sübula, awl (< “sewing instrument”).

4. Suffixed form *sü-tro-. SUTR; KAMASUTRA, from Sanskrit sütram, thread, string.

III. Suffixed shortened form *syu-men-. HYMEN, from Greek humën, thin skin, membrane.

(Pokorny si_ü- 915.)

tag- To touch, handle.

1. Nasalized form *ta-n-g-. TACT, TANGENT, TANGIBLE, TASK, TASTE, TA; ATTAIN, CONTACT, INTACT, TACTORECEPTOR, TANGORECEPTOR, from Latin tangere, to touch, with derivatives taxäre, to touch, assess (possibly a frequentative of tangere, but probably influenced by Greek tassein, taxai, to arrange, assess), and täctus, touch.

2. Compound form *n,-tag-ro-, “untouched, intact” (*n,-, negative prefix; see ne ). ENTIRE, INTEGER, INTEGRATE, INTEGRITY, from Latin integer, intact, whole, complete, perfect, honest.

3. Suffixed form *tag-smen-. CONTAMINATE, from Latin contäminäre, to corrupt by mixing or contact (< *con-tämen-, “bringing into contact with”; con-, com-, with; see kom ).

(Pokorny tag- 1054.)

tauro- Bull. Derivative of stä- , but an independent word in Indo-European.

1. TAURINE1, TAURUS, TOREADOR, TORER; BITTERN1, from Latin taurus, bull.

2. TAURINE2; TAUROCHOLIC acid, from Greek tauros, bull. (In Pokorny tëu- 1080.)

tegu- Thick. THICK, from Old English thicce, thick, from Germanic *thiku-.

(Pokorny tegu- 1057.)

tek- To beget, give birth to.

1. Suffixed form *tek-no-, child. THANE, from Old English thegn, freeman, nobleman, military vassal, warrior, from Germanic *thegnaz, boy, man, servant, warrior.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *tok-o-. OXYTOCIC, POLYTOCOUS, TOCOLOGY, from Greek tokos, birth.

(Pokorny 1. tek- 1057.)

teks- To weave; also to fabricate, especially with an ax; also to make wicker or wattle fabric for (mud-covered) house walls. Oldest form *tekìs-, becoming *teks- in centum languages. Derivatives include text, tissue, subtle, architect, and technology.

1. TEXT, TISSU; CONTEXT, PRETEXT, from Latin texere, to weave, fabricate.

2. Suffixed form *teks-lä-.
a. TILLER2, TOIL2, from Latin tëla, web, net, warp of a fabric, also weaver's beam (to which the warp threads are tied);
b. SUBTLE, from Latin subtïlis, thin, fine, precise, subtle (< *sub-tëla, “thread passing under the warp,” the finest thread; sub, under; see upo ).

3. Suffixed form *teks-ön-, weaver, maker of wattle for house walls, builder (possibly contaminated with *teks-tör, builder). TECTONI; ARCHITECT, from Greek tektön, carpenter, builder.

4. Suffixed form *teks-nä-, craft (of weaving or fabricating). TECHNICAL, POLYTECHNIC, TECHNOLOGY, from Greek tekhnë, art, craft, skill.

5a. DACHSHUND, from Old High German dahs, badger (blaireau) b. DASSIE, from Middle Dutch das, badger. Both a and b from Germanic *thahsuz, badger, possibly from this root (“the animal that builds,” referring to its burrowing skill) but more likely borrowed from the same pre-Indo-European source as the Celtic totemic name *Tazgo- (as in Gaulish Tazgo-, Gaelic Tadhg), originally “badger.”

(Pokorny tekì- 1058.)

tel@- To lift, support, weigh; with derivatives referring to measured weights and thence to money and payment. Oldest form *tel@2-. Derivatives include tolerate, retaliate, tantalize, Atlas, translate, and extol.

1. Suffixed form *tel@-mon-. TELAMON, from Greek telamön, supporter, bearer.

2. Suffixed form *tel(@)-es-. a. TOLL1; PHILATELY, from Greek telos, tax, charge; b. TOLERATE, from Latin toleräre, to bear, endure.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl,@-i-. TALIO; RETALIATE, from Latin täliö, reciprocal punishment in kind, possibly “something paid out,” from *tali- (influenced by tälis, such).

4. Suffixed variant zero-grade form *tala-nt-. TALENT, from Greek talanton, balance, weight, any of several specific weights of gold or silver, hence the sum of money represented by such a weight.

5. Perhaps (but unlikely) intensive reduplicated form *tantal-. TANTALIZE, TANTALUS, from Greek Tantalos, name of a legendary king, “the sufferer.”

6. Perhaps (but unlikely) zero-grade form *tl,@-. ATLANTIC, ATLAS, from Greek Atläs (stem Atlant-), name of the Titan supporting the world.

7. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl,@-to-. ABLATION, ABLATIVE, ALLATIVE, COLLATE, DILATORY, ELATE, ELATIVE, ILLATION, ILLATIVE, LEGISLATOR, OBLATE1, PRELATE, PROLATE, RELATE, SUBLATE, SUPERLATIVE, TRANSLATE, from Latin lätus, “carried, borne,” used as the suppletive past participle of ferre, to bear (see bher-1 ), with its compounds.

8. Suffixed zero-grade form *tl,@-ä-. TOLA, from Sanskrit tulä, scales, balance, weight.

9. Nasalized zero-grade form *tl,-n-@-. EXTOL, from Latin tollere, to lift.

(Pokorny 1. tel- 1060.)

tem- To cut. Also tem@- (oldest form *tem@2-).

I. Form *tem@-. Nasalized form *t(e)m-n-@-. TMESIS, TOME, -tome, -tom; ANATOMY, ATOM, DIATOM, DICHOTOMY, ENTOMO-, EPITOME, from Greek temnein, to cut, with o-grade forms tomos, cutting, a cut, section, volume, and tomë, a cutting.

II. Form *tem-.

1. Suffixed form *tem-lo-. TEMPLE1, TEMPLE3; CONTEMPLATE, from Latin templum, temple, shrine, open place for observation (augury term < “place reserved or cut out”), small piece of timber.

2. Extended root *tem-d- becoming *tend- in o-grade suffixed (iterative) form *tond-eyo-. TONSORIAL, TONSURE, from Latin tondëre, to shear, shave.

(Pokorny 1. tem- 1062.)

ten- To stretch. Derivatives include tendon, pretend, hypotenuse, tenement, tenor, entertain, lieutenant, and tone.

I. Derivatives with the basic meaning.

1. Suffixed form *ten-do-. a. TEND1, TENDER2, TENSE1, TENT1; ATTEND, CONTEND, DETENT, DISTEND, EXTEND, INTEND, OSTENSIBLE, PRETEND, SUBTEND, from Latin tendere, to stretch, extend; b. PORTEND, from Latin portendere, “to stretch out before” (por-, variant of pro-, before; see per1 ), a technical term in augury, “to indicate, presage, foretell.”

2. Suffixed form *ten-yo-. TENESMU; ANATASE, BRONCHIECTASIS, CATATONIA, ENTASIS, EPITASIS, HYPOTENUSE, NEOTENY, PERITONEUM, PROTASIS, SYNTONIC, TELANGIECTASIA, from Greek teinein, to stretch, with o-grade form ton- and zero-grade noun tasis (< *tn,-ti-), a stretching, tension, intensity.

3. Reduplicated zero-grade form *te-tn,-o-. TETANUS, from Greek tetanos, stiff, rigid.

4. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-tro-.

a. TANTRA, from Sanskrit tantram, loom; b. SITAR, from Persian tär, string.

5. Basic form (with stative suffix) *ten-ë-. TENABLE, TENACIOUS, TENACULUM, TENANT, TENEMENT, TENET, TENON, TENOR, TENURE, TENUT; ABSTAIN, CONTAIN, CONTINUE, DETAIN, ENTERTAIN, LIEUTENANT, MAINTAIN, OBTAIN, PERTAIN, PERTINACIOUS, REIN, RETAIN, RETINACULUM, RETINUE, SUSTAIN, from Latin tenëre, to hold, keep, maintain (< “to cause to endure or continue, hold on to”).

6. Extended form *ten-s-. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn,s-elo-. TUSSAH, from Sanskrit tasaram, shuttle.

II. Derivatives meaning “stretched,” hence “thin.”

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn,-u-. THIN, from Old English thynne, thin, from Germanic *thunniz, from *thunw-.

2. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-u-. TENUOU; ATTENUATE, EXTENUATE, from Latin tenuis, thin, rare, fine.

3. Suffixed full-grade form *ten-ero-. TENDER1, TENDRI; INTENERATE, from Latin tener, tender, delicate.

III. Derivatives meaning “something stretched or capable of being stretched, a string.”

1. Suffixed form *ten-ön-. TENDON, TENO-, from Greek tenön, tendon.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *ton-o-. TON; BARITONE, TONOPLAST, from Greek tonos, string, hence sound, pitch.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *tn,-yä-. TAENI; POLYTENE, from Greek tainiä, band, ribbon.

(Pokorny 1. ten- 1065.)

ter@-1 To rub, turn; with some derivatives referring to twisting, boring, drilling, and piercing; and others referring to the rubbing of cereal grain to remove the husks, and thence to the process of threshing either by the trampling of oxen or by flailing with flails. Oldest form *ter@1-, with variant *tre@1-, contracted to *trë-. Derivatives include trite, detriment, thrash, trauma, and truant.

I. Full-grade form *ter(@)-.

1 a. TRITE, TRITURAT; ATTRITION, CONTRITE, DETRIMENT, from Latin terere (past participle trïtus), to rub away, thresh, tread, wear out; b. TEREDO, from Greek terëdön, a kind of biting worm.

2. Suffixed form *ter-et-. TERETE, from Latin teres (stem teret-), rounded, smooth.

3. Suffixed form *ter-sko-. a. THRASH, THRESH, from Old English therscan, to thresh; b. THRESHOLD, from Old English therscold, threscold, sill of a door (over which one treads; second element obscure). Both a and b from Germanic *therskan, *threskan, to thresh, tread.

II. O-grade form *tor(@)-.

1. TOREUTICS, from Greek toreus, a boring tool.

2. Suffixed form *tor(@)-mo-, hole. DERMA2, from Old High German darm, gut, from Germanic *tharma-.

3. Suffixed form *tor(@)-no-. TUR; ATTORN, ATTORNEY, CONTOUR, DETOUR, RETURN, from Greek tornos, tool for drawing a circle, circle, lathe.

III. Zero-grade form *tr-. DRILL1, from Middle Dutch drillen, to drill, from Germanic *thr-.

IV. Variant form *trë- (< *tre@-).

1. THROW, from Old English thräwan, to turn, twist, from Germanic *thrëw-.

2. Suffixed form *trë-tu-. THREAD, from Old English thraëd, thread, from Germanic *thrëdu-, twisted yarn.

3. Suffixed form *trë-mn, (< *tre@- or *tr,@-). MONOTREME, TREMATODE, from Greek trëma, perforation.

4. Suffixed form *trë-ti- (< *tre@- or *tr,@-). ATRESIA, from Greek trësis, perforation.

V. Extended form *trï- (< *tri@-).

1. Probably suffixed form *trï-ön-. SEPTENTRION, from Latin triö, plow ox.

2. Suffixed form *trï-dhlo-. TRIBULATION, from Latin trïbulum, a threshing sledge.

VI. Various extended forms

1. Forms *trö-, *trau-. TRAUMA, from Greek trauma, hurt, wound.

2. Form *trïb-. DIATRIBE, TRIBOELECTRICITY, TRIBOLOGY, TRYPSIN, from Greek trïbein, to rub, thresh, pound, wear out.

3. Form *trög-, *trag-. a. TROGON, TROUT, from Greek trögein, to gnaw; b. DREDGE2, from Greek tragëma, sweetmeat.

4. Form *trup-. TREPAN1; TRYPANOSOME, from Greek trupë, hole.

5. Possible form *trüg-. TRUANT, from Old French truant, beggar.

(Pokorny 3. ter- 1071.)

ter@-2 To cross over, pass through, overcome. Oldest form *ter@2-, with variant *tre@2-, colored to *tra@2-, contracted to *trä-. Derivatives include thrill, nostril, and trench.

I. Zero-grade form *tr,(@)-.

1. THRIL; NOSTRIL, from Old English thyr(e)l, thÿrel, a hole (< “a boring through”), from Germanic suffixed form *thur-ila-.

2. Suffixed form *tr,@-kwe. THOROUGH, THROUGH, from Old English thurh, thuruh, through, from Germanic *thurh.

3. Greek nektar (see nek-1 ).

4. Zero-grade form *tr,@- and full-grade form *ter(@)-. AVATAR, from Sanskrit tirati, tarati, he crosses over.

II. Variant form *trä- (< *tra@-).

1. TRANS-, TRANSIENT, TRANSOM, from Latin träns, across, over, beyond, through (perhaps originally the present participle of a verb *träre, to cross over).

2. Suffixed form *trä-yo-. SERAGLIO, SERA; CARAVANSARY, LAMASERY, from Iranian *thräya-, to protect.

III. Possible extended form *tru-.

1. Suffixed form *tru-k-. TRUCULENT, from Latin trux (stem truc-), savage, fierce, grim (< “overcoming,” “powerful,” “penetrating”).

2. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *tru-n-k-o-. TRENCH, TRUNCATE, TRUNK, from Latin truncus, deprived of branches or limbs, mutilated, hence trunk (? < “overcome, maimed”).

(Pokorny 5. ter- 1075.)

terkw- To twist.

1. Possible variant (metathesized) form *twerk-. a. QUEER, from Middle Low German dwer, oblique; b. THWART, from Old Norse thverr, transverse. Both a and b from Germanic *thwerh-, twisted, oblique.

2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *torkw-eyo-. TORCH, TORMENT, TORQUE1, TORQUE2, TORSADE, TORSION, TORT, TORTUOUS, torture, TRUS; CONTORT, DISTORT, EXTORT, NASTURTIUM, RETORT1, TORTICOLLIS, from Latin torquëre, to twist.

(Pokorny terk- 1077.)

ters- To dry. Derivatives include thirst, terrain, toast1, and torrent.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr,s-. a. THIRST, from Old English thurst, dryness, thirst, from Germanic suffixed form *thurs-tu-; b. CUSK, from Old Norse thorskr, cod (< “dried fish”). Both a and b from Germanic *thurs-.


3. Suffixed o-grade form *tors-eyo-. TOAST1, TORRENT, TORRID, from Latin torrëre, to dry, parch, burn.

4. Suffixed zero-grade form *tr,s-o-. TARSUS, from Greek tarsos, frame of wickerwork (originally for drying cheese), hence a flat surface, sole of the foot, ankle.

(Pokorny ters- 1078.)

teu@- Also teu-. To swell. Oldest form *teu@2-. Derivatives include thigh, thousand, thimble, tumor, butter, and tomb.

1. Extended form *teuk-. THIGH, from Old English thëoh, thigh, from Germanic *theuham, “the swollen or fat part of the leg,” thigh.

2. Extended form *tüs-. THOUSAND, from Old English thüsend, thousand, from Germanic compound *thüs-hundi-, “swollen hundred,” thousand (*hundi-, hundred; see dekm, ).

3. Probably suffixed zero-grade form *tu-l-. a. THOLE, from Old English thol(l), oar pin, oarlock (< “a swelling”), from Germanic *thul-; b. TYLECTOMY, TYLOSIS1, from Greek tulos, callus, lump.

4. Extended zero-grade form *tüm-. a. THIMBLE, THUMB, from Old English thüma, thumb (< “the thick finger”), from Germanic *thümön-; b. suffixed (stative) form *tum-ë-. TUMESCENT, TUMID, TUMO; DETUMESCENCE, INTUMESCE, TUMEFACIENT, TUMEFY, from Latin tumëre, to swell, be swollen, be proud; c. suffixed form *tum-olo-. TUMULUS, from Latin tumulus, raised heap of earth, mound.

5. Extended zero-grade form *tübh-. TRUFFLE, TUBE; PROTUBERATE, from Latin tüber, lump, swelling.

6. Suffixed zero-grade form *tü-ro- (< *tu@-ro-). a. BUTTER, TYROSINE, from Greek türos, cheese (< “a swelling,” “coagulating”); b. OBTURATE, from Latin -türäre, to stop up, possibly from *türos, swollen, coagulated, stopped up.

7. Suffixed variant form *twö-ro-. a. SORITES, SORUS, from Greek söros, heap, pile; b. QUARK2, from Old Church Slavonic tvarogù, curds, cottage cheese.

8. Suffixed variant form *twö-mn,. SOMA1, SOMATO-, -some3; PROSOMA, from Greek söma, body (< “a swelling,” “stocky form”).

9. Suffixed zero-grade form *tw@-wo-. CREOSOTE, SOTERIOLOGY, from Greek saos, sös, safe, healthy (< “swollen,” “strong”), with derivative verb sözein, to save.

10. Perhaps nasalized extended form *tu-m-b(h)- (or extended zero-grade form *tum-). TOMB, from Greek tumbos, barrow, tomb.

(Pokorny tëu- 1080.)

teutä- Tribe.

1 a. DUTCH, from Middle Dutch duutsch, German, of the Germans or Teutons; b. PLATTDEUTSCH, from Old High German diutisc, of the people. Both a and b from Germanic *theudiskaz, of the people, derivative of *theudö, people.

2. Suffixed form *teut-onös, “they of the tribe.” TEUTON, from Latin Teutönï, the Teutons, borrowed via Celtic from Germanic tribal name *theudanöz.

3. Possibly Latin tötus, all, whole (? < “of the whole tribe”): TOTAL, TUTT; FACTOTUM, TEETOTUM. (In Pokorny tëu- 1080.)

tkei- To settle, dwell, be home. Oldest form *tkìei-, becoming *tkei- in centum languages. Derivatives include home, hangar, and situate.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *(t)koi-mo-. a. HOME, from Old English häm, home; b. NIFLHEIM, from Old Norse heimr, home; c. HAIMISH, from Old High German heim, home; d. HAME, from Middle Dutch hame, hame (< “covering”); e. HAMLET, from Old French ham, village, home; f. HAUNT, from Old French hanter, to frequent, haunt, from Germanic *haimatjan, to go or bring home; g. HANGAR, from Old French hangard, shelter, possibly from Germanic *haimgardaz (*gardaz, enclosure; see gher-1 ). a–g all from Germanic *haimaz, home.

2. Zero-grade form *tki-. a. AMPHICTYONY, PROTOCTIST, from Greek ktizein, to found, settle, from metathesized *kti-; b. probably Italic *si-. SITUATE, SITUS, from Latin situs, location, from suffixed form *si-tu-.

(Pokorny 1. kìei- 539, ei- 626.)

to- Demonstrative pronoun. For the nominative singular see so- . Derivatives include decoy, thus, and tandem.

1 a. THE2; NATHELESS, from Old English thë, thÿ (instrumental case), by the; b. DECOY, from Middle Dutch de, the; c. LEST, from Old English the, a conjunction. a–c from Germanic *thë, from Indo-European instrumental form *të.

2. THOUGH, from Middle English though, though, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse thö, though, from Germanic *thauh, “for all that.”

3. THESE, THIS, THOSE, from Old English thes, this, this, from Germanic *thasi-.

4. THAN, THEN, from Old English thanne, thænne, thenne, than, then, from Germanic *thana-.

5. THENCE, from Old English thanon, thence, from Germanic *thanana-.

6. THERE, from Old English thaër, thër, there, from Germanic *thër.

7. THITHER, from Old English thæder, thider, thither, from Germanic *thathro.

8. THEY, from Old Norse their, they, from Germanic nominative plural *thai.

9. THEIR, from Old Norse their(r)a, theirs, from Germanic genitive plural *thaira.

10. THEM, from Old Norse theim and Old English thaëm, them, from Germanic dative plural *thaimiz.

11. Extended neuter form *tod-. THAT, from Old English thæt, that, from Germanic *that.

12. THUS, from Old English thus, thus, from Germanic *thus-.

13. Adverbial (originally accusative) form *tam. TANDEM, TANTAMOUNT, from Latin tandem, at last, so much, and tantus, so much.

14. Suffixed reduced form *t-äli-. TALES, from Latin tälis, such.

15. TAUTO-, from Greek to, the.

(Pokorny 1. to- 1086.)


(Pokorny tolku_- 1088.)

tong- To think, feel.

1. THANK, from Old English thanc, thought, good will, and thancian, to thank, from Germanic *thankaz, thought, gratitude, and *thankön, to think of, thank.

2. BETHINK, THINK, from Old English (bi)thencan, to think, from Germanic *(bi-)thankjan.

3. THOUGHT, from Old English (ge)thöht, thought, from Germanic *(ga)thanht- (*ga-, collective prefix; see kom ).

4. METHINKS, from Old English thyncan, to seem, from Germanic *thunkjan.

(Pokorny 1. tong- 1088.)

treb- Dwelling.

1. Zero-grade form *tr,b-. a. THORP, from Old English thorp, village, hamlet; b. DORP, from Middle Dutch dorp, village. Both a and b from Germanic *thurp-.

2. TRABEATED, TRABECULA, TRAV; ARCHITRAVE, from Latin trabs, beam, timber.

(Pokorny trêb- 1090.)

trei- Three. Derivatives include three, trio, testicle, detest, and trinity.

I. Nominative plural form *treyes.

1 a. THREE, THRIC; THIRTEEN, THIRTY, from Old English thrïe, thrëo, thrï, three, with its derivatives thrïga, thrïwa, thrice, thrïtig, thirty, and thrëotïne, thirteen (-tïne, ten; see dekm, ); b. TRILLIUM, from Old Swedish thrïr, three. Both a and b from Germanic *thrijiz.


3. TRISKAIDEKAPHOBIA, from Greek treis, tris, three.

II. Zero-grade form *tri-.

1. Suffixed form *tri-tyo-. a. i THIRD, from Old English thrid(d)a, thirdda, third; ii RIDING2, from Old Norse thridhi, third. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *thridjaz, third; b. TERCEL, TERCET, TERTIAN, TERTIARY, TIERC; SESTERCE, from Latin tertius, third.

2. Combining form *tri-. a. TRI-, TRIBE, TRIO, TRIPLE, from Latin tri-, three; b. TRI; TRICLINIUM, TRICROTIC, TRIDACTYL, TRIGLYPH, TRITONE, from Greek tri-, three; c. TRIMURTI, from Sanskrit tri-, three.

3. TRIAD, from Greek trias, the number three.

4. TRICHOTOMY, from Greek trikha, in three parts.

5. TRIERARCH, from Greek compound triërës, galley with three banks of oars, trireme (-ërës, oar; see er@- ).

6. Suffixed form *tri-to-. TRITIUM, from Greek tritos, third.

7. Compound form *tri-pl-, “threefold” (*-pl- < combining form *-plo-, -fold; see pel-2 ). TRIPLOBLASTIC, from Greek triploos, triple.

8. Compound form *tri-plek-, “threefold” (*-plek-, -fold; see plek- ). TRIPLEX, from Latin triplex, triple.

9. Compound form *tri-st-i-, “third person standing by” (-st-, standing; see stä- ). TESTAMENT, TESTIMONY, TESTICLE, TESTI; ATTEST, CONTEST, DETEST, OBTEST, PROTEST, TESTIFY, from Latin testis, a witness.

10. SITAR, TEAPOY, from Persian si, three.

III. Extended zero-grade form *tris, “thrice.”

1. TERN2; TERPOLYMER, from Latin ter, thrice.

2. TRISOCTAHEDRON, HERMES Trismegistus, from Greek tris, thrice.

3. Suffixed form *tris-no-. TRINE, TRINITY, from Latin trïnï, three each.

IV. Suffixed o-grade form *troy-o-. TROIKA, from Russian troje, group of three.

(Pokorny trei- 1090.)

trep- To turn.

1. -tropou; APOTROPAIC, ATROPOS, TREPONEMA, from Greek trepein, to turn, with o-grade derivative tropos, turning.

2. O-grade form *trop-. a. Suffixed form *trop-o-. TROPE, TROUBADOUR, TROVE; CONTRIVE, RETRIEVE, from Greek tropos, a turn, way, manner; b. suffixed form *trop-ä-. TROPHY, TROPIC, TROPO; ENTROPY, from Greek tropë, a turning, change.

(Pokorny 2. trep- 1094.)

treud- To squeeze.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *troud-o-. THREAT, from Old English thrëat, oppression, use of force, from Germanic *thrautam.

2. Variant form *trüd-. THRUST, from Old Norse thrÿsta, to squeeze, compress, from Germanic *thrüstjan.

3. ABSTRUSE, EXTRUDE, INTRUDE, OBTRUDE, PROTRUDE, from Latin trüdere, to thrust, push.

(Pokorny tr-eu-d- 1095.)

tu- Second person singular pronoun; you, thou.

1. Lengthened form *tü (accusative *te, *tege). THEE, THOU1, from Old English thü (accusative thec, thë), thou, from Germanic *thü (accusative *theke).

2. Suffixed extended form *t(w)ei-no-. THINE, THY, from Old English thïn, thine, from Germanic *thïnaz.

(Pokorny 1097.)

ud- Also üd-. Up, out. Derivatives include utmost, carouse, outlaw, but, and hubris.

1 a. OU; UTMOST, from Old English üt, out; b. CAROUS; AUSLANDER, from Old High German üz, out; c. OUTLAW, from Old Norse üt, out; d. UITLANDER, from Middle Dutch ute, uut, out; e. UTTER1, from Middle Low German üt, out; f. UTTER2, from Old English ütera, outer, from Germanic suffixed (comparative) form *üt-era-; g. BU; ABOUT, from Old English bütan, büte, outside (adverb), from Germanic compound *bi-ütana, “at the outside” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi ). a–g all from Germanic *üt-, out.

2. Extended form *uds. a. ERSATZ, from Old High German irsezzan, to replace, from ir-, out; b. ORT, from Middle Dutch oor, out; c. Germanic compound *uz-dailjam (see dail- ); d. URSPRACHE, from Old High German ur-, out of, original. a–d all from Germanic *uz, *uz-, out.

3. Suffixed (comparative) form *ud-tero-. HYSTERESIS, HYSTERON proteron, from Greek husteros, later, second, after.

4. HUBRIS, from Greek compound hubris, violence, outrage, insolence (bri-, perhaps “heavy,” “violent”; see gwer@-1 ), from hu-.

5. VIGORISH, from Russian vy-, out.

(Pokorny ûd- 1103.)

uks-en- Bull, ox. a. OX, from Old English oxa, ox; b. AUROCHS, from Old High German ohso, ox. Both a and b from Germanic *uhsön-. (In Pokorny u_egu_- 1118.)

uper Over. Derivatives include over, sovereign, sirloin, soprano, and somersault.

1. Extended form *uperi. a. OVER, OVER-, from Old English ofer, over; b. ORLOP, from Middle Low German over, over. Both a and b from Germanic *uberi.

2. Variant form *(s)uper. a. SOUBRETTE, SOVEREIGN, SUPER-, SUPERABLE, SUPERIOR, SUPREME, SUPREMO, SUR; SIRLOIN, from Latin super, super-, above, over; b. suffixed form *(s)uper-no-. SUPERNAL, from Latin supernus, above, upper, top; c. suffixed form *super-bhw-o-, “being above” (*bhw-o-, being; see bheu@- ). SUPERB, from Latin superbus, superior, excellent, arrogant; d. suffixed (superlative) reduced form *sup-mo-. SUM1, SUMMIT, from Latin summus, highest, topmost; e. suffixed form *super-o-. SOPRANINO, SOPRANO, SUPRA; SOMERSAULT, from Latin suprä (feminine ablative singular), above, beyond.

3. Basic form *uper. HYPER-, from Greek huper, over.

(Pokorny upér 1105.)

upo Under, up from under, over. Derivatives include uproar, open, eavesdrop, supple, valet, vassal, and opal.

1 a. UP, from Old English up, uppe, up; b. UP-, from Old English üp-, upp-, up; c. UPROAR, from Middle Low German up, up; d. AUFKLärung, from Old High German üf, up. a–d all from Germanic *upp-, up.

2. OPEN, from Old English open, open, from Germanic *upanaz, “put or set up,” open.

3. ABOVE, from Old English büfan, above, over, from Germanic compound *bi-ufana, “on, above” (*bi-, by, at; see ambhi ).

4. Possibly suffixed form *up-t-. OFT, OFTEN, from Old English oft, often, from Germanic *ufta, frequently.

5. Extended form *upes-. a. EAVES, from Old English efes, eaves; b. EAVESDROP, from Old English yfesdrype, water from the eaves, from Germanic *obisdrup-, dripping water from the eaves (*drup-, to drip, from *dhrub-; see dhreu- ). Both a and b from Germanic *ubaswö, *ubizwö, vestibule, porch, eaves (< “that which is above or in front”).

6. Variant form *(s)up-. a. SOUTANE, SUB-, from Latin sub, under; b. SUPIN; RESUPINATE, from Latin supïnus, lying on the back (< “thrown backward or under”); c. suffixed form *sup-ter. SUBTERFUGE, from Latin subter, secretly; d. Latin compound supplex (< *sub-plak-; see pläk-1 ).

7. Basic form *upo. HYPO-, from Greek hupo, under.

8. Suffixed variant form *ups-o-. HYPSO-, from Greek hupsos, height, top.

9. Basic form *upo-. Celtic *wo-, under, in compound *wo-rëd- (see reidh- ).

10. Probably compound *upo-st-o-. VALET, VARLET, VASSAL, from Vulgar Latin *vassus, vassal, from Celtic *wasso-, “one who stands under,” servant, young man (*sto-, standing; see stä-)
11a. OPAL, UPANISHAD, from Sanskrit upa, near to, under;
11b. ZEND-Avesta, from Avestan upa, up to, at (in *upastävaka-, praise). Both a and b from Indo-Iranian *upa.

(Pokorny upo 1106.)

wal- To be strong.


2. Extended o-grade form *wold(h)-. a. WIELD, from Old English wealdan, to rule, and wieldan, to govern, from Germanic *waldan, to rule; b. Germanic *wald-, power, rule, in compound *harja-waldaz (see koro- ).

3. Suffixed extended o-grade form *wold-ti-. OBLAST, from Old Church Slavonic vlastì, rule.

(Pokorny u_al- 1111.)

wap- Bad, evil. Oldest form *@2wap-. Suffixed zero-grade form *up-elo-. EVIL, from Old English yfel, evil, from Germanic *ubilaz, evil. (Not in Pokorny; compare Hittite uwapp-, evil.)

we- We. For oblique cases of the pronoun see nes-2 . Suffixed variant form *wey-es. WE, from Old English wë, we, we, from Germanic *wïz.

(Pokorny u_ê- 1114.)

wë- To blow. Contracted from *we@1-; oldest basic form *@2we@1-.

1. Suffixed shortened form *we-dhro-. WEATHER, from Old English weder, weather, storm, wind, from Germanic *wedram wind, weather.

2. Suffixed (participial) form *wë-nt-o-, blowing. a. i WIND1, from Old English wind, wind; ii WINDOW, from Old Norse vindr, wind. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *windaz; b. VENT1, VENTAIL, VENTILATE, from Latin ventus, wind.

3. WING, from Middle English wenge, wing, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse vængr, wing, from suffixed Germanic form *wë-ingjaz.

4. Basic form *wë-. NIRVANA, from Sanskrit väti (stem *vä-), it blows.

(Pokorny 10. au_(e)- 81.)

webh- To weave, also to move quickly. Derivatives include web, weevil, and wobble.

1. WEAVE, WOOF1, from Old English wefan, to weave, from Germanic *weban.

2. WEFT, from Old English wefta, weft, cross thread, from Germanic *wefta-.

3. Suffixed o-grade form *wobh-yo-. WEB, WEBSTER, from Old English web(b), web, from Germanic *wabjam, fabric, web.

4. WEEVIL, from Old English wifel, weevil (< “that which moves briskly”), from suffixed Germanic form *webila-. 5a. i GOFFER, from Old French gaufre, honeycomb, waffle; ii WAFER, from Old North French waufre, wafer. Both (i) and (ii) from a source akin to Middle Low German wäfel, honeycomb; b. WAFFLE1, from Middle Dutch wäfel, waffle. Both a and b from suffixed Germanic form *wabila-, web, honeycomb.

6. Possibly Germanic *wab-, to move back and forth as in weaving. a. WAVE, from Old English wafian, to move (the hand) up and down; b. WAVER, from Middle English waveren, to waver; c. WOBBLE, from Low German wabbeln, to move from side to side, sway.

7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ubh-ä-. HYPHA, from Greek huphë, web.

(Pokorny u_ebh- 1114.)

wed-1 Water; wet. Derivatives include water, hydrant, redundant, otter, and vodka.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-ör. a. WATER, from Old English wæter, water; b. KIRSCHWASSER, from Old High German wassar, water. Both a and b from Germanic *watar.

2. Suffixed lengthened-grade form *wëd-o-. WET, from Old English waët, wët, wet, from Germanic *wëd-.

3. O-grade form *wod-. WASH, from Old English wæscan, wacsan, to wash, from Germanic suffixed form *wat-skan, to wash.

4. Nasalized form *we-n-d-. WINTER, from Old English winter, winter, from Germanic *wintruz, winter, “wet season.”

5. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-ör. HYDRANT, HYDRO-, HYDROUS, UTRICL; ANHYDROUS, CLEPSYDRA, DROPSY, HYDATHODE, HYDATID, from Greek hudör, water.

6. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *u-n-d-ä-. UNDINE, UNDULAT; ABOUND, INUNDATE, REDOUND, REDUNDANT, SURROUND, from Latin unda, wave.

7. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-ro-, *ud-rä-, water animal. a. OTTER, from Old English otor, otter, from Germanic *otraz, otter; b. NUTRIA, from Latin lutra, otter (with obscure l-); c. HYDRUS, from Greek hudros, a water snake; d. HYDRA, HYDRILLA, from Greek hudrä, a water serpent, Hydra.

8. Suffixed zero-grade form *ud-skio-. USQUEBAUGH, WHISKEY, from Old Irish uisce, water.

9. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-ä-. VODKA, from Russian voda, water.

(Pokorny 9. au_(e)- 78.)

wed-2 To speak. Oldest form *@2wed-.

1. Possible reduplicated form *@we-ud- becoming *awe-ud-, dissimilated to *aweid-, with suffixed o-grade form *awoid-o-, becoming Greek aweid-, to sing (but more likely from a separate root *@2weid-). OD; COMEDY, EPODE, HYMNODY, MELODY, MONODY, PARODY, RHAPSODY, TRAGEDY, from Greek aeidein (Attic äidein), to sing, and aoidë (Attic öidë), song, ode, with aoidos (Attic öidos), a singer, singing.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *wod-o-. THERAVADA, from Sanskrit vädah., sound, statement.

(Pokorny 6. au- 76.)

weg- To be strong, be lively. Oldest form *wegì-, becoming *weg- in centum languages. Derivatives include watch, vigilante, reveille, and velocity.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *wog-ë-. WAKE1, from Old English wacan, to wake up, arise, and wacian, to be awake, from Germanic *wakën.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *wog-no-. WAKEN, from Old English wæcnan, wæcnian, to awake, from Germanic *waknan.

3. WATCH, from Old English wæccan, to be awake, from Germanic *wakjan.

4. Suffixed form *weg-yo-. WICCA, WICKED, WITC; BEWITCH, from Old English wicca, sorcerer, wizard (feminine wicce, witch), from Germanic *wikkjaz, necromancer (< “one who wakes the dead”).

5. BIVOUAC, from Old High German wahta, watch, vigil, from Germanic *wahtwö.

6a. WAIT, from Old North French waitier, to watch;
b. WAFT, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wachten, to watch, guard.
Both a and b from Germanic *waht-.

7. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *wog-eyo-. VEGETABLE, from Latin vegëre, to be lively.

8. Suffixed (stative) form *weg-ë-. VIGO; RAVIGOTE, from Latin vigëre, to be lively.

9. Suffixed form *weg-(e)li-. VEDETTE, VIGIL, VIGILANT, VIGILANT; REVEILLE, SURVEILLANT, from Latin vigil, watchful, awake.

10. Suffixed form *weg-slo-. VELOCITY, from Latin vëlöx, fast, “lively.”

(Pokorny u_egì- 1117.)

wegh- To go, transport in a vehicle. Oldest form *wegìh-, becoming *wegh- in centum languages. Derivatives include weight, away, wagon, earwig, devious, trivial, and vex.

1. WEIGH1, from Old English wegan, to carry, balance in a scale, from Germanic *wegan.

2. WEE, from Old English waëg(e), weight, unit of weight, from Germanic lengthened-grade form *wëgö.

3. Suffixed form *wegh-ti-. WEIGHT, from Old English wiht, gewiht, weight, from Germanic *wihti-. 4a. WA; ALWAYS, AWAY, from Old English weg, way; b. NORWEGIAN, from Old Norse vegr, way; c. THALWEG, from Old High German weg, way. a–c all from Germanic *wegaz, course of travel, way.

5. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-no-. a. WAIN, from Old English wæ(g)n, wagon; b. WAGON, from Middle Dutch wagen, wagon. Both a and b from Germanic *wagnaz.

6. Suffixed o-grade form *wogh-lo-. a. WALLEYED, from Old Norse vagl, chicken roost, perch, beam, eye disease, from Germanic *waglaz; b. OCHLOCRACY, OCHLOPHOBIA, from Greek okhlos, populace, mob (< “moving mass”).

7. Distantly related to this root are: a. i GRAYWACKE, from Old High German waggo, wacko, boulder rolling on a riverbed, from Germanic *wag-, “to move about”; ii WAG1, from Middle English waggen, to wag, possibly from Germanic *wag-; b. VOGUE, from Old French voguer, to row, sail, from Old Saxon *wogön, to rock, sway, from Germanic *wëga-, water in motion; c. i EARWIG, from Old English wicga, insect (< “thing that moves quickly”); ii WIGGLE, from Middle Dutch and Middle Low German wiggelen, to move back and forth, wag. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wig-.

8. Basic form *wegh-. VECTOR, VEHEMENT, VEHICL; ADVECTION, CONVECTION, EVECTION, INVECTIVE, INVEIGH, from Latin vehere (past participle vectus), to carry.


10. Suffixed form *wegh-s-. VEX, from Latin vexäre, to agitate (< “to set in motion”).

11. Probably suffixed form *wegh-so-. CONVEX, from Latin convexus, “carried or drawn together (to a point),” convex (com-, together; see kom ).

(Pokorny u_egìh- 1118.)

wei- To turn, twist; with derivatives referring to suppleness or binding. Also wei@- (earlier *wei@1-). Derivatives include wire, vise, and iris.

I. Form *wei-.

1 a. WIRE, from Old English wïr, wire; b. GARLAND, from Old French garlande, wreath, from Frankish *wiara, *weara, wire. Both a and b from Germanic suffixed form *wï-ra-, *wë-ra-.

2. Probably suffixed Germanic form *wai-ra-. SEAWARE, from Old English wär, seaweed.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-riä-. FERRULE, from Latin viriae, bracelets (of Celtic origin).

4. Suffixed form *wei-ti-. WITHY, from Old English wïthig, willow, withy, from Germanic *wïth-, willow.

5. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi-t-. WITHE, from Old English withthe, supple twig, from Germanic *withjön-.

II. Form *wei@-, zero-grade *wï- (< *wi@-).

1. Suffixed form *wï-ti-. VIS; VITICULTURE, from Latin vïtis, vine.

2. Suffixed form *wï-tä- becoming *wittä-. VITTA, from Latin vitta, headband.

3. Suffixed form *wï-men-. MIMBRES, from Latin vïmen, withy, wicker.

4. Probably suffixed form *wï-ri-. IRIDACEOUS, IRIDO-, IRIS, IRI; IRIDIUM, IRITIS, from Greek ïris, rainbow, and ïris, rainbow goddess.

5. Perhaps suffixed form *wï-n-. INIO; EXINE, INOSINE, INOSITOL, INOTROPIC, from Greek ïs, sinew.

(Pokorny 1. u_ei- 1120.)

weid- To see. Derivatives include guide, wisdom, kaleidoscope, Hades, unwitting, envy, idea, history, and penguin.

I. Full-grade form *weid-.

1 a. TWIT, from Old English wïtan, to reproach; b. GUIDE, GUIDON, from Old Provençal guidar, to guide; c. GUY1, from Old French guier, to guide; d. WITE, from Old English wïte, fine, penalty, from Germanic derivative noun *wïti-. a–d all from Germanic *wïtan, to look after, guard, ascribe to, reproach.

2. Suffixed form *weid-to-. a. WISE1, from Old English wïs, wise; b. WISDOM, from Old English wïsdöm, learning, wisdom (-döm, abstract suffix; see dhë- ); c. WISEACRE, from Old High German wïzag, knowledgeable; d. i WISE2, from Old English wïse, wïs, manner; ii GUISE, from Old French guise, manner. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wïssön-, appearance, form, manner. a–d all from Germanic *wïssaz.

3. Suffixed form *weid-es-. EIDETIC, EIDOLON, IDOL, IDYLL, -oi; IDOCRASE, KALEIDOSCOPE, from Greek eidos, form, shape.

II. Zero-grade form *wid-.

1 a. WIT1, from Old English wit, witt, knowledge, intelligence; b. WITENAGEMOT, from Old English wita, wise man, councilor. Both a and b from Germanic *wit-.

2. WIT2, WO; UNWITTING, from Old English witan, to know, from Germanic *witan (Old English first and third person singular wät, from Germanic *wait, from Indo-European o-grade form *woid-).

3. Suffixed form *wid-to-. IWIS, from Old English gewis, gewiss, certain, sure, from Germanic *(ga)wissa-, known (*ga-, past participial prefix; see kom-).


5. Suffixed form *wid-es-yä-. IDEA, IDEO-, from Greek ideä, appearance, form, idea.

6. Suffixed form *wid-tor-. HISTORY, STORY1; POLYHISTOR, from Greek histör, wise, learned, learned man.

7. HADAL, HADES, from Greek Haidës (also Aidës), the underworld, perhaps “the invisible” and from *wid-.

8. Suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-d-o-. a. COLCANNON, from Old Irish find, white (< “clearly visible”); b. PENGUIN, from Welsh gwyn, gwynn, white.

9. Celtic *wid-, seer, in compound *dru-wid- (see deru- ).

III. Suffixed o-grade form *woid-o-. VED; RIG-Veda, from Sanskrit vedah., knowledge.

(Pokorny 2. u_(e)di- (misprint for u_(e)id-) 1125.)

wei@- To go after someting, pursue with vigor, desire, with noun forms meaning force, power. Related to wï-ro- .

1. Zero-grade form *wï- (< *wi@-). VIM, VIOLATE, VIOLENT, from Latin vïs, force, with irregular derivatives violäre, to treat with force, and violentus, vehement.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *woi(@)-tyä-. GAIN1; ROWEN, from Old French, gaaignier, gaignier, to obtain, from Germanic *waithanjan, to hunt, plunder, denominative verb from *wai-thjö, “pursuit,” hunting.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wi@-to- becoming *wï-to-. INVITE, from Latin invïtäre, to invite (in-, in; see en ).

(Pokorny 3. u_ei- 1123.)

weik-1 Clan (social unit above the household). Oldest form *weikì-, becoming *weik- in centum languages.

1. Suffixed form *weik-slä-. VILLA, VILLAGE, VILLAIN, VILLANELLE, VILLEI; BIDONVILLE, NASTY, from Latin vïlla, country house, farm.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *woik-o-. a. VICINAGE, VICINIT; BAILIWICK, from Latin vïcus, quarter or district of a town, neighborhood; b. ANDROECIUM, AUTOECIOUS, DIOCESE, DIOECIOUS, DIOICOUS, ECESIS, ECOLOGY, ECONOMY, ECUMENICAL, HETEROECIOUS, MONOECIOUS, PARISH, PAROCHIAL, from Greek oikos, house, and its derivatives oikiä, a dwelling, and oikësis, dwelling, administration.

3. Zero-grade form *wik-. VAISYA, from Sanskrit vis'ah., dwelling, house.

(Pokorny u_eikì- 1131.)

weik-2 Also weig-. To bend, wind. Derivatives include wicker, weak, and vicarious.

I. Form *weig-.

1 a. WYCH elm, from Old English wice, wych elm (having pliant branches); b. WICKER, from Middle English wiker, wicker, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish viker, willow twig, wand; c. WICKET, from Old North French wiket, wicket (< “door that turns”), from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vikja, to bend, turn. a–c all from Germanic *wik-. 2a. WEAK, from Old Norse veikr, pliant; b. WEAKFISH, from Middle Dutch weec, weak, soft. Both a and b from Germanic *waikwaz.

3. WEEK, from Old English wicu, wice, week, from Germanic *wikön-, “a turning,” series.

II. Form *weik-. Zero-grade form *wik-. a. VICAR, VICARIOUS, VICE; VICISSITUDE, from Latin *vix (genitive vicis), turn, situation, change; b. VETCH, from Latin vicia, vetch (< “twining plant”).

(Pokorny 4. u_eik- 1130.)

weik-3 To fight, conquer.

1. WIGHT2, from Old Norse vïgr, able in battle, from Germanic *wïk-.

2. Nasalized zero-grade form *wi-n-k-. VANQUISH, VICTOR, VINCIBL; CONVICT, CONVINCE, EVICT, EVINCE, from Latin vincere, to conquer.

3. Zero-grade form *wik-. ORDOVICIAN, from Celtic Ordovices (*ordo-wik-), “those who fight with hammers” (*ordo-, hammer).

(Pokorny 2. u_eik- 1128.)

weip- To turn, vacillate, tremble ecstatically. Derivatives include wipe, whip, and vibrate.

1. O-grade form *woip-. WAIF1, WAIF2, WAIVE, WAIVER, from Anglo-Norman waif, ownerless property, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse veif, waving thing, flag, from Germanic *waif-.

2. Variant form *weib-. a. WIPE, from Old English wïpian, to wipe; b. GUIPURE, from Old French guiper, to cover with silk; c. WHIP, from Middle English wippen, to whip. a–c all from Germanic *wïpjan, to move back and forth.

3. Perhaps suffixed nasalized zero-grade form *wi-m-p-ila-. a. WIMPLE, from Old English wimpel, covering for the neck (< “something that winds around”); b. GIMP1, GUIMPE, from Old High German wimpal, guimpe; c. perhaps Middle Dutch wimmel, auger (< “that which turns in boring”): WIMBLE.

4. Suffixed zero-grade variant form *wib-ro-. VIBRATE, from Latin vibräre, to vibrate.

(Pokorny u_eip- 1131.)

wekti- Thing, creature. a. WHIT, WIGHT1; AUGHT2, NAUGHT, NOT, from Old English wiht, person, thing; b. NIX2, from Old High German wiht, thing, being. Both a and b from Germanic *wihti-.

(Pokorny u_ek-ti- 1136.)

wekw- To speak.

1. O-grade form *wôkw-. a. VOCAL, VOICE, VOWEL, from Latin vöx, voice; b. CALLIOPE, from Greek ops, voice.


3. Suffixed form *wekw-es-. EPIC, EPO; EPOPEE, ORTHOEPY, from Greek epos, song, word.

(Pokorny u_eku_- 1135.)

wel-1 To wish, will. Derivatives include wealth, gallop, gallant, and voluptuous.

1. WELL2, from Old English wel, well (< “according to one's wish”), from Germanic *wel-.

2. WEAL1, WEALTH, from Old English wela, weola, well-being, riches, from Germanic *welön-.

3. WILL1, from Old English willa, desire, will power, from Germanic *wiljön-.

4. WILL2; NILL, WILLY-nilly, from Old English willan, to desire, from Germanic *wil(l)jan.

5. Germanic compound *wil-kumön- (see gwä- ).

6. O-grade form *wol-. a. GALLOP, from Old French galoper, to gallop; b. WALLOP, from Old North French *waloper, to gallop; c. GALLAN; GALLIMAUFRY, from Old French galer, to rejoice, from Frankish Latin *waläre, to take it easy, from Frankish *wala, good, well. a–c all from Germanic *wal-.

7. Basic form *wel-. VELLEITY, VOLITION, VOLUNTAR; BENEVOLENT, MALEVOLENCE, from Latin velle (present stem vol-), to wish, will.

8. Probably suffixed extended form *wel-p-i-. VOLUPTUARY, VOLUPTUOUS, from Latin voluptäs, pleasure, from an adjective *volupis, pleasing (probably preserved in the adverb volup, with pleasure, from neuter *volupe).

(Pokorny 2. u_el- 1137.)

wel-2 To turn, roll; with derivatives referring to curved, enclosing objects. Derivatives include waltz, willow, wallow, revolve, valley, and helix.

1 a. WALTZ, from Old High German walzan, to roll, waltz; b. WELTER, from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch welteren, to roll. Both a and b from Germanic *walt-.

2. WHELK1, from Old English weoluc, weoloc, mollusk (having a spiral shell), whelk, from Germanic *weluka-.

3. Perhaps Germanic *wel-. WILLOW, from Old English welig, willow (with flexible twigs).

4. Perhaps Germanic *welk-. WALK, from Old English wealcan, to roll, toss, and wealcian, to muffle up.

5. O-grade form *wol-. a. WELL1, from Old English wiella, wælla, welle, a well (< “rolling or bubbling water,” “spring”); b. GABERDINE, from Old High German wallön, to roam; c. WALLET, possibly from Old North French *walet, roll, knapsack. a–c all from Germanic *wall-.

6. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *wol-ä-. a. WALE, from Old English walu, streak on the skin, weal, welt; b. Old High German *-walu, a roll, round stem, in compound *wurzwalu (see wräd- ). Both a and b from Germanic *walö.

7. Extended form *welw-. a. WALLOW, from Old English wealwian, to roll (in mud), from Germanic *walwön; b. VAULT1, VAULT2, VOLT2, VOLUBLE, VOLUME, VOLUTE, VOLUTIN, VOLVOX, VOUSSOI; ARCHIVOLT, CIRCUMVOLVE, CONVOLVE, DEVOLVE, EVOLVE, INVOLUCRUM, INVOLVE, MULTIVOLTINE, REVOLVE, from Latin volvere, to roll; c. suffixed o-grade form *wolw-ä-. VOLVA, VULVA, from Latin vulva, volva, covering, womb; d. suffixed zero-grade form *wl,w-ä-. VALVE, VALVULE, from Latin valva, leaf of a door (< “that which turns”); e. suffixed zero-grade form *wl,u-ti-. ALYCE clover, from Greek halusis, chain; f. suffixed form *welu-tro-. ELYTRON, from Greek elutron, sheath, cover.

8. Suffixed form wel-n-. ILEU; NEURILEMMA, from Greek eilein (< *welnein), to turn, squeeze.

9. Perhaps variant *wall-. VAIL1, VALE1, VALLEY, from Latin vallës, vallis, valley (< “that which is surrounded by hills”).

10. Possibly suffixed form *wel-enä-. HELE; ELECAMPANE, INULIN, from the Greek name Helenë (oldest form Welenä), Helen.

11. Suffixed form *wel-ik-. HELICON, HELI; HELICOPTER, from Greek helix, spiral object.

12. Suffixed form *wel-mi-nth-. HELMINT; ANTHELMINTIC, PLATYHELMINTH, from Greek helmis, helmins (stem helminth-), parasitic worm.

(Pokorny 7. u_el- 1140.)

wel@- To strike, wound. Oldest form *wel@2-.

1. Suffixed o-grade form *wol(@)-o-. a. VALHALLA, from Old Norse Valhöll, Valhalla; b. VALKYRIE, from Old Norse Valkyrja, “chooser of the slain,” name of one of the twelve war goddesses (-kyrja, chooser; see geus- ). Both a and b from Old Norse valr, the slain in battle, from Germanic *walaz.

2. Suffixed basic form *wel@-nes-. VULNERABLE, from Latin vulnus (stem vulner-), a wound.

3. Suffixed zero-grade form *wl,@-to-. BERDACHE, from Old Iranian *varta- (Avestan var@ta-), seized, prisoner. (In Pokorny 8. u_el- 1144.)

wem@- To vomit. Oldest form *wem@1-.

1. WAMBLE, from Middle English wam(e)len, to feel nausea, stagger, from a Scandinavian source probably akin to Old Norse vamla, qualm, and Danish vamle, to become sick, from Germanic *wam-.

2. VOMI; NUX vomica, from Latin vomere, to vomit.

3. EMESIS, EMETIC, from Greek emein, to vomit.

(Pokorny u_em- 1146.)

wen-1 To desire, strive for. Derivatives include win, wont, wish, venerate, venereal, venom, and venison.

1. Suffixed form *wen-w-. WIN, from Old English winnan, to win, from Germanic *winn(w)an, to seek to gain.

2. Suffixed zero-grade form *wn,-yä-. WYNN, WINSOME, from Old English wynn, wen, pleasure, joy, from Germanic *wunjö.

3. Suffixed (stative) zero-grade form *wn,-ë-, to be contented. WON1, WONT, from Old English wunian, to become accustomed to, dwell, from Germanic *wunën.

4. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *won-eyo-. WEAN, from Old English wenian, to accustom, train, wean, from Germanic *wanjan.

5. WEEN, from Old English wënan, to expect, imagine, think, from Germanic denominative *wënjan, to hope, from *wëniz, hope.

6. Suffixed zero-grade form *wn,-sko-. WISH, from Old English wÿscan, to desire, wish, from Germanic *wunsk-.

7. Perhaps o-grade form *won-. a. VANIR, from Old Norse Vanir, the Vanir; b. VANADIUM, from Old Norse Vanadïs, name of the goddess Freya. Both a and b from Germanic *wana-.

8. Suffixed form *wen-es-. a. VENERATE, VENEREAL, VENERY1, VENUS, from Latin venus, love; b. suffixed form *wen-es-no-. VENOM, from Latin venënum, love potion, poison.

9. Possibly suffixed form *wen-eto-, “beloved.” WEND, from Old High German Winid, Wend, from Germanic *Weneda-, a Slavic people.

10. Suffixed form *wen-yä-. VENIAL, from Latin venia, favor, forgiveness.

11. Lengthened-grade form *wën-ä-. VENERY2, VENISON, from Latin vënärï, to hunt.

12. Suffixed basic form *wen-o-. WANDEROO, from Sanskrit vanam, forest.

13. Possibly zero-grade suffixed form *wn,-ig-. BANYAN, from Sanskrit van.ik, vän.ijah., merchant (? < “seeking to gain”).

(Pokorny 1. u_en- 1146.)

wen-2 To beat, wound.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *wn,-to-. WOUND1, from Old English wund, a wound, from Germanic *wundaz.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *won-yo-. WEN1, from Old English wen(n), wæn(n), wen, from Germanic *wanja-, a swelling.

(Pokorny u_en- 1108.)

wer-1 To raise, lift, hold suspended. Oldest form *@2wer-.

1. Basic form *awer-. AORTA, ARSIS, ARTERIO-, ARTERIOLE, ARTER; METEOR, from Greek äeirein, to raise, and artëriä, windpipe, artery.

2. Possibly from this root is Greek äër, air (from an obscure basic form *äwer-): AERIAL, AERO-, AIR, ARI; MALARIA.

3. Zero-grade form *aur-. AURA, from Greek aurä, breath, vapor (related to Greek äër, air; see 2 above).

(Pokorny 1. u_er- 1150.)

wer-2 Conventional base of various Indo-European roots; to turn, bend. Derivatives include stalwart, weird, vertebra, wrath, wrong, wrestle, briar1, rhapsody, and worm.

I. Root *wert-, to turn, wind.

1. Germanic *werth-. a. i -ward, from Old English -weard, toward (< “turned toward”); ii INWARD, from Old English inweard, inward, from Germanic *inwarth, inward (*in, in; see en ). Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic variant *warth; b. perhaps Germanic derivative *werthaz, “toward, opposite,” hence “equivalent, worth.” WORTH1; STALWART, from Old English weorth, worth, valuable, and derivative noun weorth, wierth, value.

2. WORTH2, from Old English weorthan, to befall, from Germanic *werthan, to become (< “to turn into”).

3. Zero-grade form *wr,t-. WEIRD, from Old English wyrd, fate, destiny (< “that which befalls one”), from Germanic *wurthi-.


5. VERST, from Russian versta, line, from Balto-Slavic *wirstä-, a turn, bend.

II. Root *wreit-, to turn. a. WREATH, from Old English writha, band (< “that which is wound around”); b. WRITHE, from Old English wrïthan, to twist, torture; c. WRATH, WROTH, from Old English wräth, angry (< “tormented, twisted”). a–c all from Germanic *wrïth-, *wraith-.

III. Root *wergh-, to turn.

1. WORRY, from Old English wyrgan, to strangle, from Germanic *wurgjan.

2. Nasalized variant *wrengh-. a. WRING, from Old English wringan, to twist, from Germanic *wreng-; b. i WRONG, from Middle English wrong, wrong, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse *vrangr, rangr, curved, crooked, wrong; ii WRANGLE, from Middle English wranglen, to wrangle, from a Low German source akin to wrangeln, to wrestle. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *wrang-.

IV. Root *werg-, to turn.

1. Nasalized variant form *wreng-. a. WRENCH, from Old English wrencan, to twist; b. WRINKLE, from Old English gewrinclian, to wind (ge-, collective prefix; see kom ). Both a and b from Germanic *wrankjan.

2. VERGE2; CONVERGE, DIVERGE, from Latin vergere, to turn, tend toward.

V. Root *wreik-, to turn.

1 a. WRY, from Old English wrïgian, to turn, bend, go; b. WRIGGLE, from Middle Low German wriggeln, to wriggle. Both a and b from Germanic *wrïg-. 2a. WRIST, from Old English wrist, wrist; b. GAITER, from Old French guietre, gaiter, from Frankish *wrist-. Both a and b from Germanic *wristiz, from *wrihst-.

3. WREST, WRESTLE, from Old English wraëstan, to twist, from secondary Germanic derivative *wraistjan.

4. Possibly o-grade form *wroik-. BRIAR1, BRUSQUE, from Late Latin brücus, heather, from Gaulish *brüko-.

VI. RIBALD, from Old French riber, to be wanton, from Germanic root *wrib-.

VII. Root *werb-, also *werbh-, to turn, bend.

1. WARP, from Old English weorpan, to throw away, from Germanic *werp-, *warp-, “to fling by turning the arm.”

2. REVERBERATE, from Latin verber, whip, rod.

3. VERBENA, VERVAIN, from Latin verbëna, sacred foliage.

4. Zero-grade form *wr,b-. RHABDOMANCY, RHABDOVIRUS, from Greek rhabdos, rod.

5. Nasalized variant form *wrembh-. RHOMBUS, from Greek rhombos, magic wheel, rhombus.

VIII. Root *werp-, to turn, wind.

1. Metathesized form *wrep-. WRAP, from Middle English wrappen, to wrap, from a source akin to Danish dialectal vravle, to wind, from Germanic *wrap-.

2. Zero-grade form *wr,p-. RAPHE, RHAPHID; RHAPSODY, STAPHYLORRHAPHY, TENORRHAPHY, from Greek rhaptein, to sew.

IX. Root *wr,mi-, worm; rhyme word to kwr,mi- .

1. WORM, from Old English wyrm, worm, from Germanic *wurmiz.


(Pokorny 3. u_er- 1152.)

fourmi ? lat formica, sk vamri, vamra, gk murmhx, murmhkos

wer-3 To perceive, watch out for. Derivatives include wary, lord, reward, guard, and panorama.

I. O-grade form *wor-.

1. Suffixed form *wor-o-. a. WARY, from Old English wær, watchful; b. AWARE, from Old English gewær, aware (ge-, collective and intensive prefix; see kom ); c. WARE2, from Old English warian, to beware. a–c all from Germanic *waraz.

2. Suffixed form wor-to-. a. i WAR; LORD, STEWARD, from Old English weard, a watching, keeper; ii WARDER2, from Old English weardian, to ward, guard; b. WARDE; AWARD, REWARD, WARDROBE, from Old North French warder, to guard; c. GUAR; GARDEROBE, REGARD, from Old French guarder,to guard; d. REARWARD2, from Anglo-Norman warde, guard. a–d all from Germanic *wardaz, guard, and *wardön, to guard.

3. WARE1, from Old English waru, goods, protection, guard, from Germanic *warö.

4. Suffixed form *wor-wo-. ARCTURUS, PYLORUS, from Greek ouros, a guard.

5. Probably variant *(s)wor-, *s(w)or-. EPHOR, PANORAMA, from Greek horän, to see.

II. Suffixed (stative) form *wer-ë-. REVERE1, from Latin verërï, to respect, feel awe for.

(Pokorny 8. u_er- 1164.)

wer-4 To cover. Derivatives include overt, cover, warranty, garage, garrison, and garnish.

I. Basic form *wer-.

1. WEIR, from Old English wer, dam, fish trap, from Germanic *wer-jön-.

2. Compound form *ap-wer-yo- (*ap-, off, away; see apo- ). APERIENT, APéritif, APERTUR; OVERT, OVERTURE, PERT, from Latin aperïre, to open, uncover.

3. Compound form *op-wer-yo- (*op-, over; see epi ). COVER, OPERCULU; KERCHIEF, from Latin operïre, to cover.

4. Suffixed form *wer-tro-. AMBARELLA, from Sanskrit vät.ah., enclosure, from lengthened-grade derivative *värt(r)a-.

II. O-grade form *wor-.

1. WARN, from Old English *war(e)nian, to take heed, warn, from Germanic *war-nön. 2a. i GUARANTY, from Old French garant, warrant, authorization; ii WARRANT, WARRANTEE, WARRANTY, from Old North French warant, warrant, and warantir, to guarantee; b. GARAGE, from Old French garer, to guard, protect; c. GARRET, GARRISON, from Old French g(u)arir, to defend, protect; d. WARREN, from Old North French warenne, enclosure, game preserve; e. GARMENT, GARNISH, GARNITURE, from Old French g(u)arnir, to equip. a–e all from Germanic *war-.

3. Suffixed form *wor-o-. a. Germanic *warön-, protector, in compound *burg-warön- (see bhergh-2 ); b. BARBICAN, from Old Iranian compound *pari-väraka-, protective (*pari-, around; see per1 ).

(Pokorny 5. u_er- 1160.)

wer-5 Also wer@-. To speak. Oldest form *wer@1-, with variant *wre@1-, contracted to *wrë-.

1. Suffixed zero-grade form *wr,-dho-. WORD, from Old English word, word, from Germanic *wurdam.

2. Suffixed form *wer-dho-. VERB, VERV; ADVERB, PROVERB, from Latin verbum, word.

3. Suffixed form *wer-yo-. IRONY, from Greek eirein, to say, speak.

4. Variant form *wrë-. a. Suffixed form *wrë-tor-. RHETOR, from Greek rhëtör, public speaker; b. suffixed form *wrë-mn,. RHEME, from Greek rhëma, word.

(Pokorny 6. u_er- 1162.)

wë-r- Water, liquid, milk. Contracted from *we@1-r-; zero-grade *u@1-r-, contracted to *ür-. Related to eu@-dh-r, . Suffixed zero-grade form *ür-ïnä-. URINE, from Latin ürïna, urine. (In Pokorny 9. au_(e)- 78.)

wër@-o- True, trustworthy. Oldest form *wër@1-o-. Derivatives include warlock and verdict.

1. WARLOCK, from Old English waër, faith, pledge, from Germanic *wëra-.


3. Normal grade *wero-, from *wer@-o-, in Celtic compound *ro-wero- (see per1 ).

(Pokorny 11. u_er- 1165.)

werg- To do. Oldest form *wergì-, becoming *werg- in centum languages. Derivatives include work, allergy, surgery, wrought, and orgy.

I. Suffixed form *werg-o-.

1 a. WOR; HANDIWORK, from Old English weorc, werc, work; b. BOULEVARD, BULWARK, from Old High German werc, work. Both a and b from Germanic *werkam, work.


II. Zero-grade form *wr,g-.

1. Suffixed forms *wr,g-yo-, *wr,g-to-. a. WROUGHT, from Old English wyrcan, to work; b. IRK, from Old Norse yrkja, to work. Both a and b from Germanic *wurkjan, to work, participle *wurhta-.

2. Suffixed form *wr,g-t-. WRIGHT, from Old English wryhta, maker, wright, from Germanic *wurhtjö-.

III. O-grade form *worg-.
a. ORGAN, ORGANON, from Greek organon (with suffix -ano-), tool;
b. ORGY, from Greek orgia, secret rites, worship (< “service”).

(Pokorny 2. u_ergì- 1168.)

wers- To confuse, mix up. Compare ers- .

I. Suffixed basic form.

1 a. WAR, from Old North French werre, war; b. GUERRILLA, from Spanish guerra, war. Both a and b from Germanic *werra-, from *werz-a-.

2. WORSE, from Old English wyrsa, worse, from Germanic comparative *wers-izön-.

3. WORST, from Old English wyrsta, worst, from Germanic superlative *wers-istaz.

II. Suffixed zero-grade form *wr,s-ti-. WURS; LIVERWURST, from Old High German wurst, sausage (< “mixture”), from Germanic *wursti-.

(Pokorny u_ers- 1169.)

wes-1 To live, dwell, pass the night, with derivatives meaning “to be.” Oldest form *@2wes-.

1. O-grade (perfect tense) form *wos-. WAS, from Old English wæs, was, from Germanic *was-.

2. Lengthened-grade form *wës-. WERE, from Old English waëre (subjunctive), waëron (plural), were, from Germanic *wëz-.

3. WASSAIL, from Old Norse vesa, vera, to be, from Germanic *wesan.

4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-tä-. VESTA, from Latin Vesta, household goddess.

5. Possibly suffixed variant form *was-tu-. ASTUTE, from Latin astus, skill, craft (practiced in a town), from Greek astu, town (< “place where one dwells”).

6. Suffixed form *wes-eno-. DIVAN, from Old Persian vahanam, house.

(Pokorny 1. u_es- 1170.)

wes-2 To clothe. Extension of eu-1.

1. Suffixed o-grade (causative) form *wos-eyo-. WEAR, from Old English werian, to wear, carry, from Germanic *wazjan.

2. Suffixed form *wes-ti-. VES; DEVEST, INVEST, REVET, TRAVESTY, from Latin vestis, garment.

3. Suffixed form *wes-nu-. HIMATION, from Greek hennunai, to clothe, with nominal derivative heima, hïma (< *wes-mn,), garment.

(Pokorny 5. u_es- 1172.)

wes-3 To buy.

1. Suffixed form *wes-no-. VENAL, VEND, from Latin vënum, sale.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *wos-no-. DUOPSONY, MONOPSONY, from Greek öneisthai, to buy.

3. Suffixed form *wes-ä-. BAZAAR, from Persian bäzär, from Old Iranian *vahä-carana-, “sale-traffic.”

4. Perhaps suffixed form *wes-li-. VIL; REVILE, VILIFY, VILIPEND, from Latin vïlis, cheap, base.

(Pokorny 8. u_es- 1173.)

wes-pero- Evening, night.

I. Reduced form *wes-.

1. Suffixed form *wes-to-. a. WEST, from Old English west, west; b. WESTERN, from Old English westerne, western; c. WESTERLY, from Old English westra, more westerly. a–c all from Germanic *west-.

2. Possibly Germanic *wis-, west, in Late Latin Visigothï, “West Goths” (Gothï, the Goths): VISIGOTH.

II. Basic form *wespero-.

1. PIPISTRELLE, VESPER, VESPERTILIONID, from Latin vesper, evening.

2. HESPERIAN, HESPERIDES, HESPERUS, from Greek hesperos, evening.

(Pokorny u_esperos 1173.)

wesr, Spring. VERNA; PRIMAVERA1, from Latin vër, spring (phonologically irregular).

(Pokorny u_es-r, 1174.)

wet-1 To blow, inspire, spiritually arouse. Related to wë- . Oldest form *@2wet-. Derivatives include Wednesday and atmosphere.

1. Lengthened-grade form *wöt-. a. WODE; WEDNESDAY, from Old English Wöden, Woden; b. ODIN, from Old Norse ödhinn, Odin; c. WOTAN, from Old High German Wuotan. a–c all from Germanic suffixed form *wöd-eno-, *wöd-ono-, “raging,” “mad,” “inspired,” hence “spirit,” name of the chief Teutonic god *Wöd-enaz; d. WOOD2, from Old English wöd, mad, insane, from Germanic *wödaz; e. Celtic *wät-. VATIC, from Latin vätës, prophet, poet, from a Celtic source akin to Old Irish fáith, seer.

2. O-grade form *wot-. WEDELN, from Old High German wedil, fan, from Germanic suffixed form *wath-ila-.

3. Suffixed variant form *wat-no-. FAN1, VAN3, from Latin vannus, a winnowing fan.

4. Oldest basic form *@wet- becoming *awet- in suffixed form *awet-mo-. ATMOSPHERE, from Greek atmos (< *aetmos), breath, vapor.

(Pokorny 1. u_ät- 1113.)

wet-2 Year.

1. Suffixed form *wet-ru-. WETHE; BELLWETHER, from Old English wether, wether, from Germanic *wethruz, perhaps “yearling.”

2. Suffixed form *wet-es-. a. VETERA; INVETERATE, from Latin vetus, old (< “having many years”); b. VETERINARY, from Latin veterïnus, of beasts of burden, of cattle (perhaps chiefly old cattle); c. ETESIAN, from Greek etos, year.

3. Suffixed form *wet-olo-. VEAL, VITELLUS, from Latin vitulus, calf, yearling.

(Pokorny u_et- 1175.)

wi- Apart, in half.

1. Suffixed form *wi-ito-. WIDE, from Old English wïd, wide (< “far apart”), from Germanic *wïdaz.

2. Suffixed (comparative) form *wi-tero-. a. WITH, WITHERS, from Old English wither, against, with its derivative with, with, against; b. GUERDO; WIDDERSHINS, from Old High German widar, against. Both a and b from Germanic *withrö, against.

(Pokorny 1. u_î- 1175.)

wïkm,tï- Twenty. Compound of wi- , in half, hence two, and *(d)km,t-ï (nominative dual), decade, reduced zero-grade form of dekm, . Oldest form *wïkìm,tï-, becoming *wïkm,tï- in centum languages.

1. VICENARY, VIGESIMAL, VIGINTILLION, from Latin vïgintï, twenty.

2. EICOSANOID, EICOSAPENTAENOIC acid, ICOSAHEDRON, from Greek eikosi, twenty.

3. PACHISI, from Sanskrit vis'atih., twenty.

(Pokorny u_ï-kìm,t-ï 1177.)

wï-ro- Man. Contracted from *wi@-ro-, derivative of wei@- . Derivatives include werewolf, world, and virtuoso.

1 a. WEREWOLF, WERGELD, from Old English wer, man; b. i WORLD, from Old English weorold, world; ii WELTANSCHAUUNG, WELTSCHMERZ, from Old High German weralt, world. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic compound *wer-ald-, “life or age of man” (*-ald-, age; see al-2 ); c. LOUP-garou, from Old French garoul, werewolf, from Frankish *wer-wulf, “man-wolf” (*wulf, wolf; see wl,kwo- ). Both a and b from Germanic *weraz, from shortened form *wiraz.


3. CURIA, from Latin cüria, curia, court, possibly from *co-vir-ia, “men together” (*co-, together; see kom ).

(Pokorny u_îro-s 1177.)

wl,kwo- Wolf.

1 a. WOLF, from Old English wulf, wolf; b. AARDWOLF, from Middle Dutch wolf, wulf, wolf; c. WOLFRAM, from Old High German wolf, wolf; d. Frankish *wulf, wolf, in compound *wer-wulf (see wï-ro- ). a–d all from Germanic *wulfaz.

2. Taboo variant *lupo-. LOBO, LUPINE1, LUPINE2, LUPUS, ROBAL; LOUP-garou, from Latin lupus, wolf.

3. Taboo variant *lukwo-. a. LYCANTHROPE, LYCOPODIUM, from Greek lukos, wolf; b. suffixed form *lukw-ya. LYTT; ALYSSUM, from Greek lussa, martial rage, madness, rabies (“wolf-ness”).

(Pokorny u_l,ku_os 1178.)

wl,p-ë- Fox.

1. VULPINE, from Latin vulpës, fox.

2. Taboo variant *@löpêk-. ALOPECIA, from Greek alöpëx, fox.

(Pokorny u_l,p- 1179.)

wôs You (plural). RENDEZVOUS, from Latin vös, you. (In Pokorny 1. i_u- 513.)

wräd- Branch, root. Oldest form *wre@2d-, colored to *wra@2d-, contracted to *wräd-. Derivatives include root1, wort, radish, and licorice.

I. Basic form *wräd-. ROOT1; RUTABAGA, from Old Norse röt, root, from Germanic *wröt-.

II. Zero-grade form *wr,@d-.

1 a. WORT1, from Old English wyrt, plant, herb; b. GEWürztraminer, from Old High German wurz, plant, root; c. MANGEL-wurzel, from German Wurzel, root (< *wurzwala, rootstock; *-wala, a roll, round stem; see wel-2 ). a–c all from Germanic *wurtiz.

2. Suffixed form *wr,@d-yä-. WORT2, from Old English wyrt, brewer's wort, from Germanic *wurtjö-.


4. Suffixed form *wr@d-mo-. RAMOSE, RAMU; RAMIFY, from Latin rämus, branch.

5. Perhaps suffixed reduced form *wr,(@)d-ya. RHIZO-, RHIZOM; COLEORHIZA, LICORICE, MYCORRHIZA, from Greek rhiza, root.

(Pokorny u_(e)räd- 1167.)

yë- To throw, impel. Contracted from *ye@1-.

1. Extended zero-grade forms *yak-yo- and *yak-ë- (stative). GIST, GITE, JACTITATION, JESS, JET2, JETé, JETSAM, JETTISON, JETTY1, JOIST, JU; ABJECT, ADJACENT, ADJECTIVE, AMICE, CIRCUMJACENT, CONJECTURE, DEJECT, EJACULATE, EJECT, INJECT, INTERJECT, OBJECT, PARGET, PROJECT, REJECT, SUBJACENT, SUBJECT, SUPERJACENT, TRAJECT, from Latin iacere, to throw, lay, and iacëre, to lie down (< “to be thrown”) and iaculum, dart.

2. Basic form *yë- and zero-grade form *y@-. CATHETER, DIESIS, ENEMA, PARESIS, SYNESIS, from Greek hïenai, to send, throw.

(Pokorny i_ë- 502.)

yeg- Ice. ICICLE, from Old English gicel, icicle, ice, from Germanic *jakilaz, *jekilaz.

(Pokorny i_eg- 503.)

yek- To speak. Suffixed o-grade form *yok-o-. JEWEL, JOCOSE, JOCULAR, JOKE, JUGGLE, JUGGLE; JEOPARDY, from Latin iocus, joke.

(Pokorny i_ek- 503.)

yêkwr, Liver.

(latin jecur)

1. HEPATIC, HEPATO; HEPARIN, HEPATITIS, from Greek hëpar, liver (stem hëpat- < *yëkwn,-t- < Indo-European oblique stem *yêkwn-).

2. GIZZARD, from Persian jigar, liver.

(Pokorny i_eku_-r,(t-) 504.)

yër- Year, season. Contracted from *ye@1r-.

1. Suffixed basic form *yër-o-. a. YEAR, from Old English gëar, year; b. YAHRZEIT, from Old High German jär, year. Both a and b from Germanic *jëram, year.

2. Suffixed o-grade form *yör-ä-. HORARY, HOU; HOROLOGE, HOROLOGY, HOROSCOPE, from Greek hörä, season. (In Pokorny 1. ei- 293.)

yes- To boil, foam, bubble.

1. YEAST, from Old English gist, yeast, from Germanic *jest-.

2. KIESELGUHR, from Old High German jësan, to ferment, and jerian, to cause to ferment, from Germanic *jes-.

3. ECZEMA, ZEOLITE, from Greek zeein, zein, to boil.

(Pokorny i_es- 506.)

yeu- Vital force, youthful vigor. Oldest form *@2yeu-; variant of aiw- . Suffixed zero-grade form *yuwen- (< *yu-@en-), “possessing youthful vigor,” young.

1. Further suffixed form *yuwn,-ti-. YOUTH, from Old English geoguth, youth, from Germanic *jugunthi-, *jugunthö.

2. Further suffixed form *yuwn,-ko-. a. i YOUNG, from Old English geong, young; ii JUNKER, from Old High German junc, young; iii YOUNKER, from Middle Dutch jonc, young. (i)–(iii) all from Germanic *jungaz, from *juwungaz; b. GALLOWGLASS, from Old Irish óac, from Celtic *yowanko-.

3. JUNIOR, JUNE, JUNO, JUVENILE; REJUVENATE, from Latin iuvenis, young.

(Pokorny 3. i_eu- 510.)

yeug- To join. Derivatives include yoke, jugular, adjust, junta, and yoga.

I. Zero-grade form *yug-.

1. Suffixed form *yug-o-. a. YOKE (joug), from Old English geoc, yoke, from Germanic *yukam; b. JUGATE, JUGULAR, JUGU; CONJUGATE, SUBJUGATE, from Latin iugum, yoke; c. ZYGO- ZYGOMA, ZYGOTE, -zygou; AZYGOUS, SYZYGY, from Greek zugon, yoke, and zugoun, to join; d. YUGA, from Sanskrit yugam, yoke.

2. Suffixed (superlative) form *yug-isto-. JOSTLE, JOUS; ADJUST, JUXTAPOSE, JUXTAPOSITION, from Latin iüxtä, close by, perhaps from *iugistä (viä), “on a nearby (road).”


II. Suffixed form *yeug-mn,. ZEUGMA, from Greek zeugma, a bond.

III. Suffixed o-grade form *youg-o-. YOGA, from Sanskrit yogah., union.

(Pokorny 2. i_eu- 508.)

yewes- Law.

1. JURAL, JURIST, JURY1; ABJURE, ADJURE, CONJURE, INJURY, JURIDICAL, JURISCONSULT, JURISDICTION, JURISPRUDENCE, NONJUROR, OBJURGATE, PERJURE, from Latin iüs (stem iür-), law, and its derivative iüräre, “to pronounce a ritual formula,” swear.

2. Compound form *yewes-dik- (see deik- ).

3. Suffixed from *yewes-to-. JUST1, from Latin iüstus, just.

(Pokorny i_eu_os- 512.)

yewo- A grain, probably barley. Suffixed form *yew-ya. ZEIN, from Greek zeia, one-seeded wheat.

(Pokorny i_eu_o- 512.)

yu- You. Second person (plural) pronoun. YE2, YOU, from Old English and ëow, you, from Germanic *jüz (nominative) and *iwwiz (oblique).

(Pokorny 1. i_u- 513.)